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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

al. 2000 ). These two radars are both polarimetric frequency modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radars with extremely high spatial resolutions. IDRA operates at X band, is located on top of the tower, and scans at 1 rpm at an elevation angle of 0.5°. Spectral polarimetry ( Unal 2009 ) is applied in real-time data processing to suppress clutter and thus to enhance precipitation detection. TARA is a profiling radar that operates at S band, with beam azimuth and elevation that can be adjusted manually

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

and LeMone 1989 ; Hu and Srivastava 1995 ; Rosenfeld and Lensky 1998 ; Atlas and Ulbrich 2000 , 2006 ; Ulbrich and Atlas 2007 ). These two archetypes have been invoked to explain, among other things, observed regional variability in latent heating profiles ( Tao et al. 2001 , 2006 , 2010 ) as well as the observed land–ocean contrast in lightning flash rates ( Orville and Spencer 1979 ; Zipser and Lutz 1994 ; Boccippio et al. 2000 ; Nesbitt et al. 2000 ; Toracinta et al. 2002 ; Xu et al

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

wind direction. Section 6 discusses typical storm characteristics, and section 7 describes the sensitivity of precipitation patterns to airflow characteristics. Section 8 addresses the broader impacts of the results and their relation to conceptual models and recent modeling studies. Conclusions are presented in Section 9 . 2. Regional storm characteristics Landfalling, extratropical, baroclinic waves, originating over the Pacific Ocean yield frequent rainfall during the cool season along

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

), and a rain radar to study this issue in greater detail. The obtained results demonstrate the potential of large-aperture scintillometers to estimate the path-average precipitation intensity when it rains and the path-average sensible heat flux when it is dry (as in Guyot et al. 2009 , who employed the same dataset as is used in this article). As such, this work complements earlier investigations, where we have demonstrated the combined use of microwave links as (radio wave) boundary layer

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

1. Introduction Extreme climatic events such as droughts, heat waves, and floods are potentially devastating, with serious implications for individuals, ecosystems, and societies. Human activities and the environment are greatly affected by such climatic extremes. During the rainy monsoon season (early summer) in Japan, heavy rainfall events frequently occur, owing to the intrusion of warm humid air into a stationary front known as the baiu–mei-yu–changma (hereafter baiu for short) front. Many

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

-year’s precipitation in just a few events. Finally, Dettinger (2011) analyzed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC AR4) climate projections to assess changes in AR characteristics off the California coast and showed that recent climate change projections typically include more extreme ARs in the twenty-first century due largely to greater atmospheric water vapor content. Fig . 1. (a) Satellite image of an AR over the eastern Pacific Ocean seen in IWV. Land is black since SSM

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

long history of examining a particular period and region to document QPF performance, including the early paper by Bosart (1980) that documented errors in the operational forecast model of that era. A key driver of HMT is the recognition that the current metric and precipitation threshold used to assess forecast skill are inadequate for many users, particularly for large precipitation events. Currently, the official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s National Weather Service

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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research) NOAA/OFCM 2005 ]. The number of tilts in a volume scan ranges from 5 to 14 for different VCPs ( Table 1 ). To construct a hybrid scan reflectivity field for precipitation estimation, an AVPR is computed and then the correction is applied to the lowest tilt first. If there are areas in the lowest tilt with more than 50% (an adaptable parameter) blockages, then an AVPR is

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