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Paul E. Roundy and George N. Kiladis

1. Introduction a. Background Oceanic Kelvin waves are a dominant mode of variability in the equatorial Pacific ( Knox and Halpern 1982 ; Johnson and McPhaden 1993 ; Cravatte et al. 2003 ). The apparent relationships between the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2001 ), oceanic Kelvin waves, and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been the subjects of much recent debate (e.g., Zhang and Gottschalck 2002 ). Each of these processes are characterized by

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Mikhail Dobrynin, Jens Murawski, Johanna Baehr, and Tatiana Ilyina

1. Introduction Wind waves control the basic physical processes, such as heat, momentum, and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere ( Cavaleri et al. 2012 ). Wind waves generate additional turbulence, modify ocean currents, and control the state of the sea surface. All these processes affect the air–sea exchange, general circulation patterns, and wind in the atmosphere, which in turn control wind waves. This cycle establishes a wind–wave feedback loop in the Earth system. In line with

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Tomoya Shimura, Nobuhito Mori, and Hajime Mase

1. Introduction Impacts and adaptations of climate change have been studied in various fields. Sea level rise greatly impacts human activity near coastal zones ( Bindoff et al. 2007 ) and amplifies the vulnerability of coastal regions. Ocean surface gravity waves (simply waves hereafter) produce more complex impacts than sea level rise on coastal and ocean structures, beach morphology, and other ecosystems. To assess the impacts of climate change on coastal areas, it is necessary to evaluate

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Min Zhang, Zhaohua Wu, and Fangli Qiao

the warming hiatus. One suggests that the La Niña–like decadal cooling in the eastern Pacific Ocean and intensified trade winds over the equatorial Pacific, corresponding to the negative phase of the interdecadal Pacific oscillation (IPO), had taken up the “missing heat” ( Zhang et al. 1997 ; Kosaka and Xie 2013 ; England et al. 2014 ; Watanabe et al. 2014 ; Nieves et al. 2015 ). The intensified trade winds produce the equatorial ocean Kelvin waves and deepen the equatorial thermocline

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Christian M. Appendini, Alec Torres-Freyermuth, Paulo Salles, Jose López-González, and E. Tonatiuh Mendoza

1. Introduction The knowledge of both mean and extreme wave climate is paramount for coastal and ocean engineering. For instance, the increase in the understanding of wave climatology in different areas of the world has allowed a better design of offshore/coastal structures and management, as well as better planning for shipping, design of vessels, and renewable energy assessment, among other activities. Wave climatology has been traditionally based on buoy measurements and ship observations

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Adam V. Rydbeck and Tommy G. Jensen

; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Benedict and Randall 2007 ). Recent studies have hypothesized that oceanic equatorial waves are responsible for the initiation of select MJO events by locally increasing surface latent and sensible heat fluxes that destabilize the atmosphere for deep convection ( Webber et al. 2010 , 2012a , b ). In addition to confirming the importance of warm SSTs and increased surface latent heat fluxes for MJO convection, we show that oceanic equatorial waves

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Angel Amores and Marta Marcos

1. Introduction Ocean wind-waves are one of the key mechanisms modulating the coastlines as well as a major contributor to coastal hazards. Changes in wind-waves associated with climate variability have been described in the past at different time scales [e.g., Hemer et al. (2010) during recent decades and Gulev et al. (2003) in the last century]. These are relevant to coastal evolution as well as in the deep water, for example for marine offshore systems (such as oil platforms that cannot

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Øyvind Breivik, Ana Carrasco, Joanna Staneva, Arno Behrens, Alvaro Semedo, Jean-Raymond Bidlot, and Ole Johan Aarnes

1. Introduction Wind-generated ocean surface gravity waves, referred to simply as waves, are important to climate projections because they modulate the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass between oceans and atmosphere (e.g., Cavaleri et al. 2012 ; Hemer et al. 2013 ) and because of their influence on all aspects of coastal ( Cavaleri et al. 2018 ) and offshore activities, such as coastal erosion, flooding, and sediment budgets, and the loads imposed on offshore structures and moving vessels

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Sergey K. Gulev and Vika Grigorieva

1. Introduction Ocean wind waves can effectively characterize climate change. Being generated by surface winds, they do not necessarily mirror variability patterns of wind speed. For instance, swell integrates wind properties over the larger scales than the wind sea does. Therefore, changes in significant wave height (SWH) can be affected by both local and remote wind forcing. Moreover, storminess has a profound impact on operations of marine carriers and logistics of marine structures. Thus

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Peter A. E. M. Janssen and Pedro Viterbo

Jt~E 1996 JANSSEN AND VITERBO 1269Ocean Waves and the Atmospheric Climate PETER A. E. M. JANSSEN* AND PEDRO VITERBOEuropean Centre For Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berkshire, United Kingdom(Manuscript received 3 April 1995, in final form 2 October 1995)ABSTRACT Ocean waves are generated by wind and, as a consequence, there is a considerable transfer of

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