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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

waves (e.g., Lueck 2016 ). Recent examples of surface-following platforms include a sailboard adapted to measure salinity profiles in the top meter of the ocean ( Asher et al. 2014 ), a trimaran adapted to measure atmospheric turbulence just above the sea surface ( Bourras et al. 2014 ), and “SWIFT” drifters to measure near-surface turbulence and shear ( Thomson 2012 ; Thomson et al. 2019 ). Like Asher et al. (2014) , our platform is towed so as to sample undisturbed water outside the ship’s wake

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

contribution to surface KE, from geostrophic to internal wave motions ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). Here too, in some regions such as the Kuroshio and westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC), the geostrophic or rotational modes scaled with an approximate −3 exponent, while the divergent component followed a shallower spectrum. The transition from geostrophic to internal waves was observed to occur at different length scales in distinct latitudinal bands, representing the diverse oceanic conditions found

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C. A. Luecke, H. W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, D. W. Wang, J. C. Wesson, S. U. P. Jinadasa, H. J. S. Fernando, and W. J. Teague

driven by the combination of local forcing (wind stress curl over the Sri Lanka dome) and remote equatorial forcing (Kelvin and Rossby wave propagation). Pirro et al. (2020a) reported an anticyclonic eddy southeast of Sri Lanka in July 2018 with surface velocities up to ~1 m s −1 , a size in the meridional direction of ~200 km, and penetration approximately to the depth of the thermocline (~150 m). The complex and multiscale spatial–temporal geography of upper-ocean mixing in the Bay of Bengal has

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, Emily L. Shroyer, and William D. Smyth

cooling starts to homogenize temperature and velocity in the top 2 m ( section 5 ). More generally, instability growth is sensitive to the details of near-surface vorticity and how it is affected by wind-, wave-, and buoyancy-driven turbulence ( section 6 ). 2. Equipment and measurements We present data obtained from a surface-following platform, SurfOtter, from a 2019 field campaign in the tropical western Pacific Ocean (18°N, 126°E) as part of the PISTON project (e.g., Sobel et al. 2021 ). Briefly

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

. They may vary over kilometers due to internal waves ( Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ), or alternatively organize over more than 1000 km ( Bellenger and Duvel 2009 ). Explicitly simulating DWLs in an ocean model requires high vertical resolution. Even 1-m spacing near the surface is inadequate for low wind scenarios. A climate model with a 10-m grid near the surface therefore needs to parameterize DWL physics. This is typically achieved, if attempted at all, by including a sublayer with idealized vertical

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

so has higher amplitudes than those in the mixed layer ( Figs. 6a–d ). The upward phase propagation in the zonal and meridional components of velocity ( U and V ) indicates that near-inertial waves carry energy out of the mixed layer to the subsurface ocean ( Leaman and Sanford 1975 ; Gill 1984 ; D’Asaro et al. 1995 ). Here, the near-inertial signal at subsurface depths persists for at least five inertial periods; further, most of the enhanced vertical shear of raw, unfiltered velocity ( Fig

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

efforts are required to properly constrain the magnitude of J s t . 5. Summary and future directions Yearlong observations of turbulence from moored mixing meters ( χ pods) revealed a seasonal cycle in upper-ocean turbulence along 8°N in the Bay of Bengal ( Figs. 3 and 7 and Table 1 ). In the Bay’s thermocline, the seasonal cycle of turbulence is influenced by downward propagating near-inertial waves and by low frequency shear associated with the Summer Monsoon Current and other mesoscale

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

and restratification . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 37 , 2228 – 2250 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JPO3101.1 . 10.1175/JPO3101.1 Bühler , O. , J. Callies , and R. Ferrari , 2014 : Wave–vortex decomposition of one-dimensional ship-track data . J. Fluid Mech. , 756 , 1007 – 1026 , https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2014.488 . 10.1017/jfm.2014.488 Callies , J. , and R. Ferrari , 2013 : Interpreting energy and tracer spectra of upper-ocean turbulence in the submesoscale range (1–200 km) . J. Phys

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