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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

-band formation have been discussed since the 1980s. McPhee (1979 , 1982 , 1983) suggested that an ice edge band may be separated from the top of the ice pack by the reduction of drag between sea ice and ocean owing to intense buoyancy flux by melting when the ice edge moves into warm water. Wadhams (1983) suggested that inhomogeneity of the wave radiation stress in the fetch-limited open waters of various spacing would produce ice bands. The wave radiation stress is concentrated on floes at the

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Shinichiro Kida, Bo Qiu, Jiayan Yang, and Xiaopei Lin

the pathways of the waves that enter the Tsushima Strait from the subpolar region (blue) and the subtropical region (red). The upper oceanic circulation in the Japan Sea consists of an inflow from the south (Tsushima Strait) and outflows to the northeast (Tsugaru and Soya Straits). The inflow is known as the Tsushima Warm Current, and its annual-mean transport, according to long-term measurements from bottom-mounted ADCP ( Teague et al. 2002 ) and ship-mounted ADCP ( Isobe et al. 2002 ; Takikawa

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

(ignoring the wave effects on currents) as where τ is the wind stress, ρ a is the density of the air, C D is the drag coefficient, and W and U are the 10-m wind speed and the surface current speed, respectively. The ocean eddies influence the wind stress through SSTs modifying W via marine boundary layer (MABL) dynamics (e.g., Wallace et al. 1989 ; Samelson et al. 2006 ) and surface currents creating velocity shear across the air–sea interface. To illustrate the SST effect on the wind

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

by baroclinic instability waves created between the subtropical and subarctic water boundaries also reinforce isopycnal mixing between these. Eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model (OGCM) simulation supports the significant roles of the mesoscale eddies and southward Oyashio intrusion in transporting the OSIW southward ( Ishikawa and Ishizaki 2009 ; Fujii et al. 2013 ). Fig . 1. Climatologies of (a),(b) acceleration potential, (c),(d) salinity, and (e),(f) PV at 26.8 σ θ for (left) the

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