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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Simon P. de Szoeke

1. Introduction The temperature profile of the upper meter of the ocean is sensitive to radiative absorption, turbulent surface heat flux, mixing by wind and convection, molecular viscosity, and wave effects. Solar absorption results in a diurnal warm layer near-surface temperature maximum below a molecular cool skin (e.g., Stuart-Menteth et al. 2005 ; Kawai and Wada 2007 ). Floating thermistors measure diurnal warm layers. Diurnal warm layers affect SST remote sensing, so measurements in

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Kyle Chudler and Steven A. Rutledge

originate along the equator and turn northward as they interact with the confluence zone along the monsoon trough ( Dickinson and Molinari 2002 ; Maloney and Dickinson 2003 ). As these waves primarily exist over the open ocean, in situ observations of easterly waves have been sparse, particularly over the west Pacific. Previous studies have relied primarily on satellite (e.g., Kiladis et al. 2006 ), sounding, or modeling (e.g., Donner et al. 1999 ) data to describe the 3D variability of convection

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

waves (e.g., Lueck 2016 ). Recent examples of surface-following platforms include a sailboard adapted to measure salinity profiles in the top meter of the ocean ( Asher et al. 2014 ), a trimaran adapted to measure atmospheric turbulence just above the sea surface ( Bourras et al. 2014 ), and “SWIFT” drifters to measure near-surface turbulence and shear ( Thomson 2012 ; Thomson et al. 2019 ). Like Asher et al. (2014) , our platform is towed so as to sample undisturbed water outside the ship’s wake

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Adam H. Sobel, Janet Sprintall, Eric D. Maloney, Zane K. Martin, Shuguang Wang, Simon P. de Szoeke, Benjamin C. Trabing, and Steven A. Rutledge

–sea interaction in TOGA COARE and DYNAMO . J. Climate , 28 , 597 – 622 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00477.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-14-00477.1 Dickinson , M. , and J. Molinari , 2002 : Mixed Rossby–gravity waves and western Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. Part I: Synoptic evolution . J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 2183 – 2196 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2183:MRGWAW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2002)059<2183:MRGWAW>2.0.CO;2 Domingues , R. , and Coauthors , 2019 : Ocean observations in

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C. A. Luecke, H. W. Wijesekera, E. Jarosz, D. W. Wang, J. C. Wesson, S. U. P. Jinadasa, H. J. S. Fernando, and W. J. Teague

driven by the combination of local forcing (wind stress curl over the Sri Lanka dome) and remote equatorial forcing (Kelvin and Rossby wave propagation). Pirro et al. (2020a) reported an anticyclonic eddy southeast of Sri Lanka in July 2018 with surface velocities up to ~1 m s −1 , a size in the meridional direction of ~200 km, and penetration approximately to the depth of the thermocline (~150 m). The complex and multiscale spatial–temporal geography of upper-ocean mixing in the Bay of Bengal has

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, Emily L. Shroyer, and William D. Smyth

cooling starts to homogenize temperature and velocity in the top 2 m ( section 5 ). More generally, instability growth is sensitive to the details of near-surface vorticity and how it is affected by wind-, wave-, and buoyancy-driven turbulence ( section 6 ). 2. Equipment and measurements We present data obtained from a surface-following platform, SurfOtter, from a 2019 field campaign in the tropical western Pacific Ocean (18°N, 126°E) as part of the PISTON project (e.g., Sobel et al. 2021 ). Briefly

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Benjamin C. Trabing and Michael M. Bell

magnitude of shortwave and longwave radiative tendencies in the atmosphere. A thin cirrus canopy would result in more reflection of shortwave radiation, while a thicker canopy would result in increased absorption within the cloud, and both would reduce the magnitude of shortwave radiation available to warm the ocean surface. Using an idealized linear model, Evans and Nolan (2019) showed that direct radiative heating in the cirrus canopy may be responsible for generating gravity waves that can

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

wave response to convective heating, and 10%–25% of the convergence resulted from SST-induced pressure gradients. Carbone and Li (2015) observed that SST forcing of boundary layer convergence led ISO convection by ~10 days in the Eastern Hemisphere. The observed correlations between ISO SST forcing and rainfall were particularly strong in the western Indian Ocean, suggesting a role for SST-forced boundary layer convergence in ISO initiation [see Figs. 9 and 11 of Carbone and Li (2015 )]. Webber

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

TC genesis to take place. Tropical waves can also interact with the prominent diurnal variability over the MC and SCS. In MJO events, the mean and diurnal amplitude of land precipitations over the MC are enhanced 6 days ahead of the MJO convection envelope, while the precipitation over the coastal ocean is largely suppressed ( Peatman et al. 2014 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hung and Sui 2018 ). Baranowski et al. (2016b) tracked the KW events passing MC using satellite observations to identify the

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

contribution to surface KE, from geostrophic to internal wave motions ( Qiu et al. 2017 ). Here too, in some regions such as the Kuroshio and westward flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC), the geostrophic or rotational modes scaled with an approximate −3 exponent, while the divergent component followed a shallower spectrum. The transition from geostrophic to internal waves was observed to occur at different length scales in distinct latitudinal bands, representing the diverse oceanic conditions found

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