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M. L. McAllister and T. S. van den Bremer

1. Introduction Wave-following buoys are commonly used as devices to measure free surface elevation in the oceans. This is, in part, owing to their relative ease of installation; unlike the majority of Eulerian measurement devices, buoys do not require a supporting structure. Measurements made with both buoys and Eulerian devices are used in operational oceanography and ocean engineering in various forms. Summary statistics such as significant wave height H s and peak period T p are

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M. L. McAllister and T. S. van den Bremer

1. Introduction Wave-following measurement buoys are widely deployed across the oceans, as they provide a cost effective, easy-to-install alternative to their Eulerian counterparts. As a result of this, they represent an abundant source of data and metocean statistics, outnumbering Eulerian observations by an order of magnitude ( Christou and Ewans 2014 ). However, within the oceanographic community, it is generally perceived that the measurements these devices produce are less accurate

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Fabrice Ardhuin, Erick Rogers, Alexander V. Babanin, Jean-François Filipot, Rudy Magne, Aaron Roland, Andre van der Westhuysen, Pierre Queffeulou, Jean-Michel Lefevre, Lotfi Aouf, and Fabrice Collard

1. Introduction a. On phase-averaged models Spectral wave modeling has been performed for the last 50 years, using the wave energy balance equation ( Gelci et al. 1957 ). This approach is based on a spectral decomposition of the surface elevation variance across wavenumbers k and directions θ . The spectra density F evolves in five dimensions that are the two spectral dimensions k and θ , the two physical dimensions of the ocean surface (usually longitude and latitude), and time t

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Roger Grimshaw, Efim Pelinovsky, and Tatiana Talipova

1. Introduction It is well known that the stable background density stratification of the ocean interior allows for the vertical propagation of internal waves (e.g., Gill 1982 ). Furthermore, this process has been studied experimentally in the laboratory (e.g., Stevens and Imberger 1994 ). Moreover, it is also well known that a monochromatic internal wave is an exact solution of the fully nonlinear Euler equations for an unbounded stratified fluid (in the Boussinesq approximation) with a

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Yuri V. Lvov, Kurt L. Polzin, Esteban G. Tabak, and Naoto Yokoyama

1. Introduction Wave–wave interactions in continuously stratified fluids have been a subject of intensive research in the last few decades. Of particular importance is the observation of a nearly universal internal-wave energy spectrum in the ocean, first described by Garrett and Munk ( Garrett and Munk 1972 , 1975 ; Cairns and Williams 1976 ; Garrett and Munk 1979 ). However, it appears that ocean is too complex to be described by one universal model. Accumulating evidence suggests that

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Hitoshi Tamura, Takuji Waseda, Yasumasa Miyazawa, and Kosei Komatsu

1. Introduction When random or directional ocean waves propagate through a current field that varies spatially, their statistical properties, such as significant wave height or mean wave direction, can be modulated. In general, changes in wave characteristics are attributed to physical processes of wave refraction and/or straining ( Holthuijsen and Tolman 1991 ) caused by the horizontal shear current. Recent studies using spaceborne altimeter data have indicated that strong ocean currents, such

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Paul E. Roundy and George N. Kiladis

1. Introduction a. Background Oceanic Kelvin waves are a dominant mode of variability in the equatorial Pacific ( Knox and Halpern 1982 ; Johnson and McPhaden 1993 ; Cravatte et al. 2003 ). The apparent relationships between the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ; Zhang 2001 ), oceanic Kelvin waves, and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have been the subjects of much recent debate (e.g., Zhang and Gottschalck 2002 ). Each of these processes are characterized by

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Bin Liu, Huiqing Liu, Lian Xie, Changlong Guan, and Dongliang Zhao

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are intense cyclonic atmospheric vortices originated in warm tropical oceans. They are strongly coupled to ocean mixed layer and surface waves through momentum, heat, and moisture exchanges at the air–sea interface. In a TC system, the atmospheric forcing drives sea surface waves and underlying ocean currents, while the energy for a TC to maintain or strengthen its intensity comes mainly from the ocean through air–sea heat and moisture

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Delphine Hypolite, Leonel Romero, James C. McWilliams, and Daniel P. Dauhajre

1. Introduction Surface gravity waves are known to have a strong dynamical coupling with oceanic currents in at least two situations: in the wind-driven surface boundary layer where they engender Langmuir turbulence (LT) ( Langmuir 1938 ; McWilliams et al. 1997 ; Thorpe 2004 ; Sullivan and McWilliams 2010 ; Belcher et al. 2012 ), and in the surf zone where breaking induces littoral (rip) currents ( Longuet-Higgins and Stewart 1964 ; Feddersen and Trowbridge 2005 ; MacMahan et al. 2006

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E. J. Walsh, C. W. Wright, M. L. Banner, D. C. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Jensen, and S. Lee

1. Introduction For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX; Banner et al. 1999 ; Chen et al. 2001 ; Walsh et al. 2005 ), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA; Walsh et al. 1996 , 2002 ; Wright et al. 2001 ) was shipped to Australia and installed on the CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft, instrumented to make comprehensive measurements of air–sea interaction fluxes. The SRA swept a radar beam of 1° half-power width (two way) across the

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