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Alex S. Gardner, Martin J. Sharp, Roy M. Koerner, Claude Labine, Sarah Boon, Shawn J. Marshall, David O. Burgess, and David Lewis

were associated with changes in synoptic weather patterns. In the summer, lapse rates were closer to the free-air MALR when there was enhanced cyclonic activity, but were considerably lower than the MALR (<2°C km −1 ) when anticyclonic circulation prevailed. Here we discuss measurements of surface air temperatures and lapse rates made on four large ice masses in the Canadian high Arctic at various intervals during the period 1988–2007. The Canadian high Arctic contains the largest volume of land

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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

Model (NCOM1.4) that has 25 vertical levels, 3.6° longitudinal grid spacing, and latitudinal spacing of 1.8° poleward of 30° that smoothly decreases to 0.9° within 10° of the equator ( Gent et al. 1998 ). The sea ice model ( Weatherly et al. 1998 ) includes ice thermodynamics based on a three-layer model ( Semtner 1976 ) and ice dynamics based on a cavitating fluid rheology ( Flato and Hibler 1992 ). The land model and the sea ice model employ the same grid spacing as the atmosphere and ocean models

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