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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1994 ) is the most important form of tropical subseasonal variability and its significant role in our weather and climate systems has been widely recognized (e.g., Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ). The MJO has been intimately associated with active/break modulation of the global monsoon systems (e.g., Lau and Chan 1986 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1990 ) and tropical cyclone genesis (e.g., Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ; Mo

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

1. Introduction The release of latent heat in the tropical atmosphere accounts for approximately 75% of the total heating in the earth’s atmosphere (e.g., Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Malkus 1962 ; Riehl and Simpson 1979 ). Tropical latent heating (LH) plays a major role in driving and modulating tropical and extratropical weather across all spatial and temporal scales from meso- and synoptic to planetary scales (e.g., Matsuno 1966 ; Webster 1972 ; Gill 1980 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Mapes

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

this study were made with the TOGA COARE flux algorithm ( Fairall et al. 1996 ; Wang et al. 1996 ) and a modification of conversion of cloud ice to snow in the ice microphysics schemes ( Tao et al. 2003a ) as well as the 3D simulations. The 2D and 3D simulations have been done with data sampling frequency of 5 and 15 min, respectively. The accuracy of the convective–stratiform separation affects the determination of the vertical distribution of heating. The TRMM PR rain-type classifications, in

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

land and ocean surfaces, independent of whether clouds are present. With this modification, HERB 2008 is better suited to representing variability in the tropical radiation budget caused by aerosols. HERB 2008 also features an improved algorithm for daytime cloud detection that combines visible and infrared observations from VIRS. At solar zenith angles less than 75°, a visible reflectance greater than one standard deviation above that of the clearest pixel in the preceding month is required to

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