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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

components can be improved to mitigate potential shortcomings? In particular, this study presents two extreme LES cases over the lower Great Lakes region, with National Weather Service (NWS) reported measured accumulation of about 124 cm in 24 h south of Buffalo, New York, for the first case study and about 140 cm (103 cm in 24 h) downwind of Lake Ontario for the second case, showing hourly accumulation 1.2–3.5 times the average hourly accumulation of intense LES events that occur over the region. The

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Giuseppe Mascaro

( Lumbroso et al. 2011 ; Liew et al. 2014 ). These challenges have significantly limited the ability to carry out IDF analyses, so that recent studies have proposed the use of satellite ( Ombadi et al. 2018 ), reanalysis products ( Courty et al. 2019 ), and weather radars ( Marra and Morin 2015 ) to complement observations from sparse rain gauges. A strategy to address the lack of rain gauges at subdaily resolution is to infer estimates of i ( T R , τ ) for τ < 24 h from information on the rainfall

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Andrea Camplani, Daniele Casella, Paolo Sanò, and Giulia Panegrossi

1. Introduction Snow plays an important role in the Earth energy exchange processes and is a fundamental element of the water cycle. Higher-latitude regions are experiencing significant modifications related to climate change. While the effect on temperatures is relatively well known, the impacts on precipitation, snow/ice extent, and snow/ice properties are less documented and less understood. The use of satellites for snowfall monitoring and quantification and for retrieving snow

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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

observations and the thermal energy equation. More recently, Ahmed et al. (2016) built an algorithm to retrieve LH based on the sizes of convective and stratiform areas as well as their echo-top heights from a multiweek Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulation using data from the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign in the Indian Ocean. In addition, the original TRMM-related algorithms have and will need to continue to evolve, especially with the expansion of TRMM’s successor, the

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