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Monica Ionita, Gerrit Lohmann, Norel Rimbu, and Silvia Chelcea

, 2943 – 2962 . Déry, S. J. , and Wood E. F. , 2004 : Teleconnection between the Arctic Oscillation and Hudson Bay river discharge . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L18205 , doi:10.1029/2004GL020729 . Desser, C. , and Blackmon M. L. , 1993 : Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic Ocean during winter: 1900–89 . J. Climate , 6 , 1743 – 1753 . Dettinger, M. D. , and Diaz H. F. , 2000 : Global characteristics of streamflow seasonality . J. Hydrometeor. , 1 , 289 – 310

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Georg Lackner, Daniel F. Nadeau, Florent Domine, Annie-Claude Parent, Gonzalo Leonardini, Aaron Boone, François Anctil, and Vincent Fortin

-007-0357-1 Chylek , P. , C. K. Folland , G. Lesins , M. K. Dubey , and M. Wang , 2009 : Arctic air temperature change amplification and the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L14801 , . 10.1029/2009GL038777 Clapp , R. B. , and G. M. Hornberger , 1978 : Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties . Water Resour. Res. , 14 , 601 – 604 , . 10.1029/WR014i004p00601 Cui , W

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Hamish D. Pritchard, Daniel Farinotti, and Steven Colwell

in the lowland Finnish Arctic at 180-m altitude; 2) Silsersee, a 4.12-km 2 Swiss alpine valley lake at 1800-m altitude; and 3) Tomasee, a 0.025-km 2 , high-alpine cirque lake at 2345-m altitude, and the source of the River Rhine ( Fig. 1 ). In each case, we deployed commercially available, high-precision water-pressure sensors (nominal precision 0.1% full scale) on the lake bed, either in advance of the winter freeze-up or via a hole drilled through the winter ice cover. Fig . 1. Locations of

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Bin Yong, Liliang Ren, Yang Hong, Jonathan J. Gourley, Xi Chen, Jinwei Dong, Weiguang Wang, Yan Shen, and Jill Hardy

precipitation show that precipitation tends to gradually decrease from south to north for all decades. Interestingly, there is a significant decadal oscillation of spatial rainfall patterns. For instance, the mean annual precipitation of the basin is 535.1 mm during the 1950s ( Table 2 ), and the 400-mm precipitation contour is outside of the basin to the north ( Fig. 5a ). However, an obvious dry trend existed for the 1960s, and the 400-mm precipitation contour moved to the southwest part of the basin

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Hengchun Ye, Judah Cohen, and Michael Rawlins

dominant ones, but they do influence CT values to varying extents and with varying degrees of complexity. The near-surface vertical temperature profile is also critical to precipitation type. The strong inversion layer found in the Arctic may make it possible for rain to occur even at a very low surface air temperature ( Serreze et al. 1992 ; Bradley et al. 1992 ). In the Swiss Alps, Rohrer (1989) found that rain occurred with a surface air temperature of −5.8°C because of the presence of a strong

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Shibo Yao, Dabang Jiang, and Zhongshi Zhang

considered that there are three main paths for water vapor transport from the Arabian Sea, Baltic Sea, and other places to Xinjiang. Huang et al. (2017) used the HYSPLIT model to examine water vapor sources of heavy precipitation in Xinjiang from 1951 to 2014 and determined that most of the water vapor came from the North Atlantic, the Arctic Ocean, the Eurasian Continent, and the Indian Ocean. Zhou et al. (2019) experimented with the Flexible Particle dispersion model (FLEXPART) and concluded that

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N. J. Steinert, J. F. González-Rouco, P. de Vrese, E. García-Bustamante, S. Hagemann, C. Melo-Aguilar, J. H. Jungclaus, and S. J. Lorenz

Pg; Tarnocai et al. 2009 ) and soil nutrients that remained isolated from the global biogeochemical cycle for millennia ( Froese et al. 2008 ) are getting released into the atmosphere through microbial organic matter decomposition from increased temperatures ( Heimann and Reichstein 2008 ; Schuur et al. 2008 ; Koven et al. 2011 ) and arctic amplification due to the ice–albedo feedback ( Manabe and Stouffer 1980 ). The degradation of permafrost causes positive feedback that accelerates climate

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Muattar Saydi, Guoping Tang, Yan Qin, Hong Fang, and Xiaohua Chen

snowfall in the arid Central Asia; a high correlation, which is 0.51 and significant at the 99% confidence level, verifies their link ( Huang et al. 2013 ). Also, the recession in Arctic sea ice cover has played a significant role in supporting increased snowfall in the arid Central Asia ( Huang et al. 2015a ), probably because reduction of sea ice provides excessive moisture flux ( Liu et al. 2012 ). In addition, the enhanced pressure gradient caused by the North Atlantic Oscillation ( Huang et al

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Hua Su, Robert E. Dickinson, Kirsten L. Findell, and Benjamin R. Lintner

external forcing, owing to the relatively short memory of the atmosphere itself. The ocean is a substantial driver of low-frequency atmospheric variability through air–sea interaction, the effects of which can be propagated over large distances through teleconnections. Over extratropical North America, several well-known modes of low-frequency variability can strongly impact large-scale hydroclimatology in both cold and warm seasons, for example, the Arctic Oscillation (AO; data from http

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Ziyan Li, Shengzhi Huang, Shuai Zhou, Guoyong Leng, Dengfeng Liu, Qiang Huang, Hao Wang, Zhiming Han, and Hao Liang

). Huang et al. (2017) explored the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO) and underlying surface characteristics as potential factors for drought propagation time. Barker et al. (2016) explored the relationship between meteorological drought and hydrological drought in the United Kingdom and its links with climate and catchment properties. They found that in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage (such as the percentage of highly productive fractured rock

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