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Dev Niyogi, Ming Lei, Chandra Kishtawal, Paul Schmid, and Marshall Shepherd

; Hand and Shepherd 2009 ; Niyogi et al. 2011 ; Kishtawal et al. 2010 ; Smith et al. 2012 ; Yeung et al. 2015 ; Haberlie et al. 2015 ). Studies such as Pielke et al. (2011) document recent efforts in understanding the climatic impacts of LULCC. In general, the LULCC impact on rainfall is attributed to dynamic mesoscale boundaries such as changes in atmospheric convergence zones ( Rozoff et al. 2003 ; van den Heever and Cotton 2007 ; Lei et al. 2008 ) and aerosol impacts ( Rosenfeld 2000

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

this sink is critically important for understanding current and future carbon cycles from regional to global scales. Over the last decade, atmospheric inverse modeling approaches, mostly based on Bayesian optimization, have been widely applied to constrain terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes, covering various temporal scales and from state to regional ( Göckede et al. 2010a ; Lauvaux et al. 2012b ; Schuh et al. 2013 ) and continental to global scales (e.g., Rödenbeck et al. 2003 ; Bousquet et

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Madhavi Jain, A. P. Dimri, and D. Niyogi

1. Introduction In India there were 53 urban agglomerations with over 1 million people in 2011 as compared to 35 in 2001 ( Census of India 2011 ). Out of these urban agglomerations, three megacities, namely, Delhi, Mumbai, and Kolkata, can be identified as having population greater than 10 million. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Pune are the current incipient megacities (population between 5 and 10 million), which are likely to transition to being megacities because of the

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

coupled to a land surface and urban modeling system that aimed to address emerging issues in urban areas ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Our experiment uses the Noah land surface model (LSM) to model the land surface ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), thereby providing surface energy fluxes and surface skin temperatures that serve as the boundary conditions for the atmospheric model. While the original version of Noah LSM has a bulk parameterization for urban land use, our experiment uses a single-layer UCM to

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Zhijuan Liu, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaomao Lin, Kenneth G. Hubbard, Shuo Lv, and Jing Wang

growth cycle ( Lobell et al. 2009 ). Hence, a large exploitable gap exists between current yields and what is theoretically achievable under ideal management. The demonstration of yield gaps between potential yield and actual farmers’ yield for cereal crops provides an essential framework within which to prioritize research and policy efforts aimed at reducing these gaps ( Abeledo et al. 2008 ; Neumann et al. 2010 ; Laborte et al. 2012 ; Mueller et al. 2012 ). It is acknowledged that yield gaps

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

; Means 1954 ). Abundant low-level convergence, cyclonic shear, and moisture convergence to the north of the GPLLJ maximum dynamically force convective development above the planetary boundary layer at night. For these reasons, the diurnal maximum in warm-season rainfall occurs at night instead of during peak heating when instability is the greatest ( Bonner 1968 ; Helfand and Schubert 1995 ; Weaver and Nigam 2011 ). Variations in the GPLLJ are influenced by fluctuations in the gradient between the

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

noted that LULCC has the potential to influence atmospheric circulation patterns over Australia as well as the boundary layer temperature. In their simulations, the influence of LULCC on temperature propagates upward beyond the boundary layer and reached a height of approximately 0.7-sigma level ( Narisma and Pitman 2003 ). A recent study using a fully coupled Community Earth System Model (CESM) showed that LULCC could significantly affect atmospheric circulation at 850 hPa in Asia during the

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

. Numerical simulations performed on the Los Angeles basin by Sailor (1995) indicated that increasing albedo over downtown Los Angeles by 0.14 and over the entire basin by an average of 0.08 would result in decreased peak summertime temperatures by as much as 1.5°C, lowering boundary layer heights by more than 50 m and reducing the magnitude and penetration of the sea breeze. One-dimensional meteorological simulations by Taha et al. (1988) showed that localized afternoon air temperatures on summer

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

data are delineated to actual boundaries with a native resolution of 0.2 to 0.4 km. Further, an image developed from the University of Maryland Department of Geography is used that provides LULC information from AVHRR satellites acquired from 1981 to 1994 ( Hansen et al. 2000 ) at a spatial resolution of 1 km. Combined, this list of LULC datasets provide the best available comprehensive view of LULC change and trends over the southeastern United States for the past century. 3.2.2. Temperature The

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

colder climate when deforestation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., Jahn et al. 2005 ; Brovkin et al. 2006 ; Pitman et al. 2009 ; Pongratz et al. 2009 ; Goosse et al. 2012 ; He et al. 2014 ). Currently, afforestation is considered as a mitigation strategy by CO 2 sequestration ( Mykleby et al. 2017 ); despite that, the reduced radiative forcing from reduced CO 2 in the atmosphere might locally be counteracted by biogeophysical positive forcing. Biogeophysical impacts of land

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