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S. Joseph Munchak, Robert Meneghini, Mircea Grecu, and William S. Olson

(>19 GHz) can become opaque to the surface in rain and clouds, and although the surface emission is not fully obscured at lower frequencies, measurements at multiple frequencies near the C band are required to distinguish the surface and rain column contributions from the observed radiances ( Uhlhorn et al. 2007 ). However, the large footprints that are characteristic of spaceborne microwave radiometers at these frequencies are not optimal for retrievals of wind and precipitation due to

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

information is limited to the lightning-active clouds and era of GLM satellite sensors. Fig . 2. Distributions of total precipitation fraction as a function of DPR-combined (V5) convective fraction. The x axis ranges from zero (fully stratiform) to one (fully convective) in 0.2 increments. Light blue: current operational GPROF (V5) retrieval; gray: DPR-combined (V5); bright blue: GPROF when provided DPR-combined information on convective/stratiform flag. Given the four-decade-long effort in linking PMW

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