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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn McMurdie, and Robert Conrick

are especially important on smaller-scale ridges where any condensate formed by ascent on the windward side has a short amount of time to reach precipitation size and fall out. Many studies have observed or modeled processes resembling the “seeder–feeder” effect ( Bergeron 1968 ), which refers to the enhancement of precipitation on a small ridge when condensate falling from a preexisting higher cloud collects cloud drops from a separate, lower-level cloud, resulting in a more efficient

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Aaron R. Naeger, Brian A. Colle, Na Zhou, and Andrew Molthan

highly varying concentrations of large drops, suggesting both warm rain (e.g., collision–coalescence) and cold rain processes (e.g., melting). Purnell and Kirshbaum (2018) noted the presence of cold rain via an active seeder–feeder process during warm frontal and sector conditions throughout OLYMPEX from the synthesis of observations and model simulations in which “seeder” clouds initiate precipitation growth that falls into orographically enhanced (“feeder”) clouds at lower levels ( Cotton et al

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David J. Purnell and Daniel J. Kirshbaum

cloud depth (not shown). To systematically quantify the sensitivity of OPEs to , we conduct sets of WF and WS simulations where in (5) is progressively varied. To limit expense, these experiments use km, which does not affect the basic model sensitivities (not shown). Nine values of are considered: 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 m s −1 , encompassing the control values for both the WF and WS cases. Because synoptic forcing is limited to the midtroposphere ( km), the

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