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Carlowen A. Smith, Kevin G. Speer, and Ross W. Griffiths

carry a large fraction of the transport of the ACC, the Subantarctic Front (SAF) and the Polar Front (PF; e.g., Cunningham et al. 2003 ), but other fronts can have comparable transports in individual hydrographic sections. Numerous zonal jets in the ACC were dramatically resolved in the study of Sokolov and Rintoul (2007 , 2009) . Observational evidence is also growing that not only the ACC, but much of the deep ocean flow is permeated by zonal jets ( Nakano and Suginohara 2002 ; Treguier et al

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Takeyoshi Nagai, Amit Tandon, Eric Kunze, and Amala Mahadevan

within the frontal jet and would not be identified as near inertial in fixed mooring measurements. Fig . 10. Depth-time series of normalized fluctuating (a) horizontal divergence and (b) vorticity south of the front (southern diamond in Figs. 5c,d and 6c,d ). Depth is WKB-normalized . Temporal hodographs of divergence and vorticity along the (c) black–white–black horizontal line in (a). Depth hodographs of divergence and vorticity along the (d) black–white–black vertical line in (a). Green

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Roy Barkan, Kraig B. Winters, and Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

. The wind-induced barotropic jet is in the positive x direction. The equation indicates the Ekman upwelling and downwelling regions. Note that f > 0. The second simulation, hereinafter referred to as wind and buoyancy forced (WBF), is forced by the same buoyancy flux, but in addition a surface stress is applied at the top, where μ is the dynamic viscosity and ρ 0 τ max (N m −2 ) is the magnitude of the maximal surface stress. The Ekman pumping − f −1 ∂ τ /∂ y associated with (3

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Ryan Abernathey and Paola Cessi

, 2261 – 2278 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-11-023.1 . Berloff , P. , I. Kamenkovich , and J. Pedlosky , 2009 : A mechanism of formation of multiple zonal jets in the oceans . J. Fluid Mech. , 628 , 395 – 425 , doi: 10.1017/S0022112009006375 . Bishop , S. P. , D. R. Watts , and K. A. Donohue , 2013 : Divergent eddy heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension at 144°–148°E. Part I: Mean structure . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 43 , 1533 – 1550 , doi: 10.1175/JPO-D-12-0221.1 . Cessi , P. , 2008

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Masoud Jalali, Vamsi K. Chalamalla, and Sutanu Sarkar

Smagorinsky model, used in this simulation, is a well-established subgrid model for LES that has been applied successfully in several previous studies, for example, in a rotating channel flow ( Piomelli 1993 ), mixing layers ( Vreman et al. 1997 ), scalar mixing in axisymmetric jets ( Akselvoll and Moin 1996 ), turbulent boundary layer over a bump ( Wu and Squires 1998 ), and flow over bluff bodies ( Rodi et al. 1997 ). The accuracy of turbulent dissipation rate obtained from the subgrid model has been

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Xia Liu, Mu Mu, and Qiang Wang

-stationary meanders east of 140°E. Although the amplitudes of two KE jet meanders were slightly small, the model showed good skill in simulating the Kuroshio separation between 34° and 35°N from the coast of Japan. Therefore, ROMS can simulate the Kuroshio well. Fig . 3. The climatological SSH (m) for the (a) ROMS simulation result for nest 1, and (b) AVISO result averaged from 1993 to 2012. 3. CNOP method and its application to the Kuroshio LM In this section, we show how to search for the nonlinear optimal

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Katherine McCaffrey, Baylor Fox-Kemper, and Gael Forget

the structure function estimates depend on depth. Beginning the assessment of ocean turbulence with the structure function as its own statistic, both isobaric and isopycnal structure functions are calculated at different depths, first in a relatively quiet region of the midlatitude Pacific ( Figs. 6 , 7 ). This region shows some degree of heterogeneity in salinity variance (see Fig. 5 ) but is far removed from the most energetic ocean jets (the Kuroshio and Equatorial Undercurrent in particular

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Peter E. Hamlington, Luke P. Van Roekel, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Gregory P. Chini

– 735 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0485(2004)034<0720:LESOTO>2.0.CO;2 . Özgökmen , T. M. , A. C. Poje , P. F. Fischer , and A. C. Haza , 2011 : Large eddy simulations of mixed layer instabilities and sampling strategies . Ocean Modell. , 39 , 311 – 331 , doi: 10.1016/j.ocemod.2011.05.006 . Polton , J. A. , and S. E. Belcher , 2007 : Langmuir turbulence and deeply penetrating jets in an unstratified mixed layer . J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , C09020 , doi: 10.1029/2007JC004205 . Shcherbina

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

conversion term, analogous to mixed layer instabilities (MLI) described in Boccaletti et al. (2007) . An explanation of this difference is the stronger cross-front velocity shear in the middle of the double jet in the center of the filament compared to a front of comparable width and density magnitude, which makes it easier to meet the criterion for horizontal shear instability. b. Potential vorticity injection by winds The forcing of fronts by downfront winds is known to have an impact on frontogenesis

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

: Mesoscale to submesoscale transition in the California Current system. Part III: Energy balance and flux . J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 38 , 2256 – 2269 , doi: 10.1175/2008JPO3810.1 . Charney , J. , and M. Stern , 1962 : On the stability of internal baroclinic jets in a rotating atmosphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 19 , 159 – 172 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1962)019<0159:OTSOIB>2.0.CO;2 . Craik , A. , 1977 : The generation of Langmuir circulations by an instability mechanism . J. Fluid Mech. , 81 , 209

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