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Andreas Dörnbrack

by a series of papers: Matthias et al. (2016) , Manney and Lawrence (2016) , Dörnbrack et al. (2017) , and Voigt et al. (2018) . The Arctic polar vortex was very stable and extremely cold in the early phase until end of December 2015. Afterward, planetary wave activity displaced the vortex off the pole and weakened its strength (see the appendix ). The period in the middle of January 2016 belongs to one of the early planetary wave disturbances shifting the vortex center toward Iceland. The

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Gergely Bölöni, Bruno Ribstein, Jewgenija Muraschko, Christine Sgoff, Junhong Wei, and Ulrich Achatz

– 98 , doi: 10.3137/ao.410105 . Limpasuvan , V. , J. H. Richter , Y. Orsolinic , F. Stordald , and O. Kvisseld , 2012 : The roles of planetary and gravity waves during a major stratospheric sudden warming as characterized in WACCM . J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. , 78–79 , 84 – 98 , doi: 10.1016/j.jastp.2011.03.004 . Lindzen , R. S. , 1981 : Turbulence and stress owing to gravity wave and tidal breakdown . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 9707 – 9714 , doi: 10.1029/JC086iC10p09707

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Jannik Wilhelm, T. R. Akylas, Gergely Bölöni, Junhong Wei, Bruno Ribstein, Rupert Klein, and Ulrich Achatz

1. Introduction Internal gravity waves (GWs) play a significant role in atmospheric dynamics on various spatial scales ( Fritts and Alexander 2003 ; Kim et al. 2003 ; Alexander et al. 2010 ; Plougonven and Zhang 2014 ). Already in the lower atmosphere GW effects are manifold. Examples include the triggering of high-impact weather (e.g., Zhang et al. 2001 , 2003 ) and clear-air turbulence ( Koch et al. 2005 ), as well as the effect of small-scale GWs of orographic origin on the predicted

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Junhong Wei, Gergely Bölöni, and Ulrich Achatz

, 1103 – 1124 , https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.637 . 10.1002/qj.637 Andrews , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1976 : Planetary waves in horizontal and vertical shear: The generalized Eliassen-Palm relation and the mean zonal acceleration . J. Atmos. Sci. , 33 , 2031 – 2048 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2031:PWIHAV>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1976)033<2031:PWIHAV>2.0.CO;2 Andrews , D. G. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1978 : An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian

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Claudia Christine Stephan, Cornelia Strube, Daniel Klocke, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, and Hauke Schmidt

transition from westerly to easterly winds with important consequences for the propagation and drag of planetary and synoptic waves ( Scaife et al. 2002 ). They also contribute to the forcing of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and thus to the transport of trace gases like ozone and water vapor ( Alexander and Rosenlof 1996 ). Convectively generated GWs are important for generating the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in the tropics ( Labitzke 2005 ; Marshall and Scaife 2009 ), which has a strong influence

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Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

.1175/2008JAS2538.1 . 10.1175/2008JAS2538.1 McIntyre , M. E. , and W. A. Norton , 2000 : Potential vorticity inversion on a hemisphere . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 1214 – 1235 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<1214:PVIOAH>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<1214:PVIOAH>2.0.CO;2 McLandress , C. , 2002 : The seasonal variation of the propagating diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Part I: The role of gravity waves and planetary waves . J. Atmos. Sci. , 59 , 893 – 906

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Mohammad Mirzaei, Ali R. Mohebalhojeh, Christoph Zülicke, and Riwal Plougonven

1. Introduction More than 20 yr since the pioneering work by O’Sullivan and Dunkerton (1995) , the problem of inertia–gravity wave (IGW) generation by vortical flows has remained an active area of research [see Plougonven and Zhang (2014) for a recent review]. It is related to the fundamental problems of balance ( Vanneste 2013 ; Bühler et al. 2014 ; Callies et al. 2014 ; McIntyre 2015 ) and wave–vortex decomposition (WVD; Bühler et al. 2014 ; Callies et al. 2014 ), as well as the more

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