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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

, including differences in albedo, lower computed surface temperature, differences in downward longwave radiation (VIC uses a temperature-based computation, whereas the Eta Model performs a radiative transfer computation), and differences in emissivity. Also, although the downward shortwave radiation produced by the Thornton and Running (1999) temperature index method is lower than the Eta surface solar radiation in NARR, an exploratory investigation (not shown here) indicates that the VIC reflected

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Mekonnen Gebremichael, Enrique R. Vivoni, Christopher J. Watts, and Julio C. Rodríguez

increased interest is the need to fill the gap between the large scales of meteorological model outputs and the smaller hydrological scales. Discrepancies in scale also arise when remote sensing estimates are compared to point measurements for validation. Studies have documented the importance of small-scale rainfall variability on runoff simulation ( Ogden and Julien 1993 , 1994 ; Winchell et al. 1998 ), radiative transfer computations ( Harris et al. 2003 ), estimation of land–atmosphere fluxes

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