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Ruiyue Chen, Fu-Lung Chang, Zhanqing Li, Ralph Ferraro, and Fuzhong Weng

evolution of cloud systems and affects water redistribution ( Stephens 1999 ). The effect of boundary layer clouds is so strong that even small changes in their optical and microphysical properties are likely to have major consequences for climate change. The liquid water path (LWP) is an important cloud microphysical property that determines the climatic effects of boundary layer clouds. For example, Greenwald et al. (1995) found that a 0.05 kg m −2 increase in LWP (for LWP < 0.2 kg m −2 ) results

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Graeme L. Stephens and Christian D. Kummerow

. J. Atmos. Sci. , 55 , 1977 – 1996 . Prabhakara , C. , R. S. Fraser , G. Dalu , M-L. C. Wu , R. J. Curran , and T. Styles , 1988 : Thin cirrus clouds: Seasonal distribution over oceans deduced from Nimbus-4 IRIS. J. Appl. Meteor. , 27 , 379 – 399 . Robertson , F. R. , D. E. Fitzgerald , and C. Kummerow , 2003 : Effects of uncertainty in TRMM precipitation radar path integrated attenuation on interannual variations of tropical oceanic rainfall. Geophys. Res. Lett

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

window channels over ocean also yield water path information, but multiple channels are required to help distinguish the effects of water vapor and ocean roughness from absorption by water droplets. The instrument of primary interest in this paper, AMSU, scans cross track with only a single angle-dependent polarization. The altitude distributions of hydrometeors can be inferred, for example, using the opaque oxygen band channels near 54, 118, and 425 GHz. Only frequencies penetrating down to cell

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Peter M. Norris and Arlindo M. da Silva

paid to predicted cloud properties, due to the slower time scales associated with cloud-induced radiative heating rates compared with the forecast duration. Nevertheless, clouds do have an important societal impact from day to day, in terms of their effects on diurnal temperature range and sunlight exposure. Furthermore, since NWP and GCM models have become more merged, typically sharing the same physics, advances in cloud parameterization in either climate or weather studies ought to benefit the

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