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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

sensitivity of AM3 to these underlying assumptions. To limit the scope of this work, we solely focus on the subgrid variability aspect of the activation parameterization. We treat the local activation parameterization that links aerosols and vertical velocity to the nucleation of cloud droplet as given. In AM3, it is based on Ming et al. (2006) with modifications as described in Donner et al. (2011 ). While the present study focuses on subgrid activation assumptions, we note that explicit or implicit

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

overestimate. 2. Dynamical core As in CM2.1 ( Delworth et al. 2006 ), the dynamical core used in AM3/CM3 follows the finite-volume algorithms described in Lin and Rood (1996 , 1997) and Lin (1997 , 2004) , with the following major modifications. In an effort to enhance the model’s parallel computing efficiency and to improve simulation quality in polar regions, the dynamical core formulated on, and optimized specifically for, the latitude–longitude grid has been significantly modified to use a general

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

–2000. Observational estimates are also shown in all figures from in situ measurements analyzed by Ganachaud and Wunsch (2003) and the reanalysis estimates from Trenberth and Caron (2001) (using the period February 1985 to April 1989) from both the NCEP–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) reanalysis and the 40-yr European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis (ERA-40), Uppala et al. 2005 ). Note the different scales for the vertical axes in each basin. In the

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