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Yong-Keun Lee, Cezar Kongoli, and Jeffrey Key

Abstract

The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) was launched in 2012 on board the Global Change Observation Mission 1st–Water (GCOM-W1) satellite. This study presents a robust evaluation of AMSR2 algorithms for the retrieval of snow-covered area (SCA) and snow depth (SD) that will be used operationally by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Quantitative assessment of the algorithms was performed for a 10-yr period with AMSR-E and a 2-yr period with AMSR2 data using the NOAA Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS) snow cover and in situ SD data as references. AMSR-E SCA showed a monthly overall accuracy rate of about 80% except in May. Accuracy improves significantly to over 90% when wet snow cases are excluded, and accuracy differences between ascending and descending portions of orbits also decrease. Microwave-derived SCA over dry snow areas can therefore be obtained with accuracy close to optically derived SCA. An evaluation of the results for AMSR-E SD showed a low overall bias of 1 cm and a root-mean-square error of 20 cm. Results for AMSR2-based SCA and SD are similar to those from AMSR-E. Biases and root-mean-square errors show dependencies on elevation, forest fraction, the magnitude of snow depth, and snow cover class.

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Yu Zhang, Limin Wu, Michael Scheuerer, John Schaake, and Cezar Kongoli

Abstract

This article compares the skill of medium-range probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts (PQPFs) generated via two postprocessing mechanisms: 1) the mixed-type meta-Gaussian distribution (MMGD) model and 2) the censored shifted Gamma distribution (CSGD) model. MMGD derives the PQPF by conditioning on the mean of raw ensemble forecasts. CSGD, on the other hand, is a regression-based mechanism that estimates PQPF from a prescribed distribution by adjusting the climatological distribution according to the mean, spread, and probability of precipitation (POP) of raw ensemble forecasts. Each mechanism is applied to the reforecast of the Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) to yield a postprocessed PQPF over lead times between 24 and 72 h. The outcome of an evaluation experiment over the mid-Atlantic region of the United States indicates that the CSGD approach broadly outperforms the MMGD in terms of both the ensemble mean and the reliability of distribution, although the performance gap tends to be narrow, and at times mixed, at higher precipitation thresholds (>5 mm). Analysis of a rare storm event demonstrates the superior reliability and sharpness of the CSGD PQPF and underscores the issue of overforecasting by the MMGD PQPF. This work suggests that the CSGD’s incorporation of ensemble spread and POP does help enhance its skill, particularly for light forecast amounts, but CSGD’s model structure and its use of optimization in parameter estimation likely play a more determining role in its outperformance.

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Cezar Kongoli, William P. Kustas, Martha C. Anderson, John M. Norman, Joseph G. Alfieri, Gerald N. Flerchinger, and Danny Marks

Abstract

The utility of a snow–vegetation energy balance model for estimating surface energy fluxes is evaluated with field measurements at two sites in a rangeland ecosystem in southwestern Idaho during the winter of 2007: one site dominated by aspen vegetation and the other by sagebrush. Model parameterizations are adopted from the two-source energy balance (TSEB) modeling scheme, which estimates fluxes from the vegetation and surface substrate separately using remotely sensed measurements of land surface temperature. Modifications include development of routines to account for surface snowmelt energy flux and snow masking of vegetation. Comparisons between modeled and measured surface energy fluxes of net radiation and turbulent heat showed reasonable agreement when considering measurement uncertainties in snow environments and the simplified algorithm used for the snow surface heat flux, particularly on a daily basis. There was generally better performance over the aspen field site, likely due to more reliable input data of snow depth/snow cover. The model was robust in capturing the evolution of surface energy fluxes during melt periods. The model behavior was also consistent with previous studies that indicate the occurrence of upward sensible heat fluxes during daytime owing to solar heating of vegetation limbs and branches, which often exceeds the downward sensible heat flux driving the snowmelt. However, model simulations over aspen trees showed that the upward sensible heat flux could be reversed for a lower canopy fraction owing to the dominance of downward sensible heat flux over snow. This indicates that reliable vegetation or snow cover fraction inputs to the model are needed for estimating fluxes over snow-covered landscapes.

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