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Christian Kummerow, William Barnes, Toshiaki Kozu, James Shiue, and Joanne Simpson

Abstract

This note is intended to serve primarily as a reference guide to users wishing to make use of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data. It covers each of the three primary rainfall instruments: the passive microwave radiometer, the precipitation radar, and the Visible and Infrared Radiometer System on board the spacecraft. Radiometric characteristics, scanning geometry, calibration procedures, and data products are described for each of these three sensors.

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Brian D. Scannell, Tom P. Rippeth, John H. Simpson, Jeff A. Polton, and Joanne E. Hopkins

Abstract

The combination of acoustic Doppler current profilers and the structure function methodology provides an attractive approach to making extended time series measurements of oceanic turbulence (the rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation ε) from moorings. However, this study shows that for deployments in the upper part of the water column, estimates of ε will be biased by the vertical gradient in wave orbital velocities. To remove this bias, a modified structure function methodology is developed that exploits the differing length scale dependencies of the contributions to the structure function resulting from turbulent and wave orbital motions. The success of the modified method is demonstrated through a comparison of ε estimates based on data from instruments at three depths over a 3-month period under a wide range of conditions, with appropriate scalings for wind stress and convective forcing.

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