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Jinhuan Qiu, Xiangao Xia, Jianghui Bai, Pucai Wang, Xuemei Zong, and Daren Lu

Abstract

A method is proposed to simultaneously calibrate shortwave (0.3–4 μm) global, direct, and scattering solar irradiance (GSI, DSI, and SSI, respectively) measurements. The method uses the World Radiation Reference (WRR) as a calibration standard and on-site radiation measurements as inputs. Two simple but effective techniques are used in the calibration. The first is to scale SSI and GSI detection sensitivities under overcast skies, which is based on the assumption that SSI should be equal to GSI if DSI is completely scattered and absorbed. The second is a new method to retrieve aerosol optical thickness (AOT), using the ratio of horizontal DSI (HDSI) to GSI measurements under clear and clean conditions. Thereafter, retrieved AOTs are used to drive a radiative transfer model to calculate atmospheric transmittance and then a ratio of GSI to the transmittance. Deviation of this ratio to the WRR is regarded as an indicator of GSI uncertainty, and the calibration transfer coefficient is derived as the WRR ratio. The method is applied to calibrate radiation measurements at Xianghe, China, during 2005. It is estimated from the derived transfer coefficients on 36 clear and clean days that uncertainties of DSI, GSI, and SSI measurements are within −4.0% to 2.9%, −5.9% to 2.4%, and −6.1% to 4.9%, respectively. The calibration is further validated based on comparisons of AOT at 750 nm retrieved from HDSI/GSI to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOT products. The maximum deviation between two AOT products is 0.026. The unique advantage of this method lies in its potential applications in correcting historic radiation measurements and monitoring radiometer performance.

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Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, Tianxue Wen, Yinghong Wang, Xingru Li, Yang Sun, Jie Sun, Pucai Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinming Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tao Song, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, Guiqian Tang, Wenkang Gao, Yuhong Guo, Hongyan Miao, Shili Tian, and Lu Wang

Abstract

Based on a network of field stations belonging to the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research network of China (CARE-China) was recently established as the country’s first monitoring network for the study of the spatiotemporal distribution of aerosol physical characteristics, chemical components, and optical properties, as well as aerosol gaseous precursors. The network comprises 36 stations in total and adopts a unified approach in terms of the instrumentation, experimental standards, and data specifications. This ongoing project is intended to provide an integrated research platform to monitor online PM2.5 concentrations, nine-size aerosol concentrations and chemical component distributions, nine-size secondary organic aerosol (SOA) component distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations (including SO2, NOx, CO, O3, and VOCs), and aerosol optical properties. The data will be used to identify the sources of regional aerosols, the relative contributions from nature and anthropogenic emissions, the formation of secondary aerosols, and the effects of aerosol component distributions on aerosol optical properties. The results will reduce the levels of uncertainty involved in the quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on regional climate and environmental changes and ultimately provide insight into how to mitigate anthropogenic aerosol emissions in China. The present paper provides a detailed description of the instrumentation, methodologies, and experimental procedures used across the network, as well as a case study of observations taken from one station and the distribution of main components of aerosol over China during 2012.

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