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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

process, wind advects the heat away from the source and helps to reestablish the sea–air thermal gradient and facilitates a faster rate of turbulent conduction. Hence, two questions arise as to the role wind has played in decadal variability of SHF, and the relative importance of wind and thermal effects in giving rise to the changing characteristics of the SHF time series. These questions will be addressed in this study. Fig . 1. Monthly time series of global averaged LHF (solid line, W m −2 ; left

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

water vapor, aerosol, and clouds. The exclusion of strongly absorbing aerosols in GCMs can regionally cause excessive insolation at the ground (e.g., Cusack et al. 1998 ). The crude aerosol climatologies typically used in current GCMs and reanalyses do not properly account for these aerosol effects ( Wild 1999 ), thus introducing a bias not only in NSW radiation estimates, but also in, for example, the oceanic heat distribution ( Cai et al. 2006 ). c. SOSE and LY09 We next turn to the SOSE and LY

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

polynyas and their role in sequestration of anthropogenic constituents . Polynyas: Windows to the World’s Oceans, W. O. Smith Jr. and D. G. Barber, Eds., Elsevier, 193–221 . Inoue , J. , M. E. Hori , T. Enomoto , and T. Kikuchi , 2011 : Intercomparison of surface heat transfer near the Arctic marginal ice zone for multiple reanalyses: A case study of September 2009 . SOLA , 7 , 57 – 60 . Kalnay , E. , and Coauthors , 1996 : The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project . Bull. Amer

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