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John E. Walsh, David H. Bromwich, James. E. Overland, Mark C. Serreze, and Kevin R. Wood

Ocean. U.S. Treasury Doc. 118, Government Printing Office, 71 pp., . Hurrell , J. W. , Y. Kushnir , G. Ottersen , and M. Visbeck , Eds., 2003 : An overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact , Geophys. Monogr. , Vol. 134, Amer. Geophys. Union, 1–35. 10.1029/134GM01 Ifft , G. N. , 1922 : The changing Arctic . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 50 , 589 , https

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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

–09), are associated with the years of rapid ice thinning and the strengthening of circulation of the Beaufort Gyre. Increases in drift speed are seen over much of the Arctic except in areas with thicker ice (e.g., north of Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago). In the NH, the circulation patterns ( Rigor et al. 2002 ) and ice export ( Kwok and Rothrock 1999 ) can be linked to the Arctic Oscillation. In the Southern Ocean, ice drift estimates (1992–2010) also reveals large and statistically

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

seasonal patterns of climate response. For example, following a large tropical volcanic eruption, the resulting latitudinal gradient of stratospheric heating, ozone depletion, and surface temperature patterns are observed to produce a stronger polar vortex in the NH, with a positive mode of the Arctic Oscillation in the winter, and winter warming of NH continents (e.g., Robock 2000 ). In fact, evidence of a warm winter in Europe from 1257 to 1258 CE was used to help determine the timing of the largest

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Margaret A. LeMone, Wayne M. Angevine, Christopher S. Bretherton, Fei Chen, Jimy Dudhia, Evgeni Fedorovich, Kristina B. Katsaros, Donald H. Lenschow, Larry Mahrt, Edward G. Patton, Jielun Sun, Michael Tjernström, and Jeffrey Weil

follows is organized by topic, starting with the surface layer over land and ocean, and then moving upward to the entire ABL and its evolution under “ideal” (fair weather, no cloud) conditions. The complications of a heterogeneous surface and clouds follow, along with a description of the boundary layer over the Arctic Ocean, because we can learn from its unique characteristics. 2 This is followed by a brief summary of how our knowledge of surface, boundary layer, and cloud processes is synthesized

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Sally A. McFarlane, James H. Mather, and Eli J. Mlawer

decrease the SW flux at the surface, the spatial and temporal inhomogeneity of cumuli also resulted in periodic episodes of cloud-induced enhancement of the surface SW flux. These events occurred approximately 20% of the time that cumuli existed and produced occurrences of positive SW CREs with instantaneous values as large as +75 W m −2 . 2) North Slope of Alaska The Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing regions on the planet, and clouds play an important role in climate feedbacks in this region

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

the spaceborne CALIOP (acronyms are defined in Table 5-1 ) lidar have shown that supercooled water is frequently observed near storm tracks in high-latitude regions and also over continental areas (e.g., Hu et al. 2010 ). Table 5-1. Abbreviations. Studies in the Arctic and over the Southern Ocean have especially highlighted the importance of mixed-phase clouds. Given the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds over the Arctic ( Shupe et al. 2001 , 2005 ; Intrieri et al. 2002 ), they exert a major

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J. H. Mather, D. D. Turner, and T. P. Ackerman

that had been originally planned ( U.S. Department of Energy 1990 ; appendix A, Stokes and Schwartz 1994 ), with the installation of the millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR; see Kollias et al. 2016 ). The following years saw the deployment of the first and second Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites at Manus and Nauru ( Long et al. 2016 ) and the deployment of ARM instrumentation during the year-long Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) experiment and at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

over East Asia . Int. J. Climatol. , 24 , 131 – 144 , doi: 10.1002/joc.1006 . Gong , D.-Y. , S. W. Wang , and J. H. Zhu , 2001 : East Asian winter monsoon and Arctic Oscillation . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 28 , 2073 – 2076 , doi: 10.1029/2000GL012311 . Gray , W. M. , 1968 : Global view of tropical disturbances and storms . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 96 , 669 – 700 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1968)096<0669:GVOTOO>2.0.CO;2 . Guan , Z. , C. Lu , S. Mei , and J. Cong , 2010

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Maike Ahlgrimm, Richard M. Forbes, Jean-Jacques Morcrette, and Roel A. J. Neggers

model parameterizations. The ARM Program historically has played a key role in all of these areas. There are many examples where the ECMWF model has benefitted from comparison with ARM observations from the Arctic, midlatitudes, and tropics over the past two decades (e.g., Mace et al. 1998 ; Morcrette 2002b ; Comstock and Jakob 2004 ; Tselioudis and Kollias 2007 ; Klein et al. 2009 ; Agustí-Panareda et al. 2010 ), as well as for exploration of new data assimilation techniques ( Lopez et al

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M. A. Miller, K. Nitschke, T. P. Ackerman, W. R. Ferrell, N. Hickmon, and M. Ivey

early discussions of a movable facility were relatively unstructured because the program had not yet developed a working permanent site. By 2000, the perception of this problem had been altered radically by ARM’s participation in the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA; Uttal et al. 2002 ; Verlinde et al. 2016 , chapter 8) experiment during 1997–98, and by the work of the Pennsylvania State University TWP group, which had been responsible for conducting ARM science using the TWP site

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