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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

occurrence of precipitation in these parameterizations is related to large-scale flows. The departure of CM3 precipitation patterns from AM3 patterns is typical when coupling atmospheric and oceanic GCMs and is evidently a consequence of a chain of interactions between the ocean and atmosphere components (e.g., Zhang et al. 2007 ). Fig . 1. AM3 annual-mean, zonally averaged cumulus mass fluxes (g m −2 s −1 ) for (a) all convection (except MAA), (b) cell updrafts, (c) mesoscale updrafts, (d) mesoscale

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

modeling in which interactive ocean biogeochemistry, land vegetation, and interactive carbon cycling are critical. This path used nearly the same atmospheric model as in CM2.1 and it led to two new earth system models that differ only by their ocean components. The second development path, leading to CM3, is the focus of the present paper, as well as Donner et al. (2011) . For CM3 priorities included aerosol–cloud interactions, chemistry–climate interactions, and links between the troposphere and

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

1. Introduction The atmospheric component–Atmospheric Model, version 3 (AM3)–of the new Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) coupled general circulation model (CM3; Donner et al. 2011 ) includes a prognostic treatment of cloud drop number concentration. This is a significant departure from the previous version, AM2 ( GFDL Global Atmosphere Model Development Team 2004 ), which separately prescribes cloud drop number for land and ocean grid points. The introduction of prognostic drop

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