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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

-propagating gravity waves ( Sun et al. 2004 ), turbulence and mean shear interactions ( Nakamura and Mahrt 2005 ), and slope and valley flow transitions ( WHP09 ). Note that except for the last reference, all mechanisms are derived from the Cooperative Atmospheric-Surface Exchange Study -1999 (CASES-99) over nearly flat terrain. In reality, SBL flows are usually affected by the complex land surface. Large-scale topographic features such as mountains and valleys have pronounced effects in stratified flows ( Baines

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James D. Doyle and Dale R. Durran

key aspect of rotor development involves the mutual interaction between the lee wave and the surface boundary layer. Their two-dimensional simulations indicate that a thin vortex sheet, generated by mechanical shear in the boundary layer, separates from the surface owing to adverse pressure gradients associated with lee waves. To explore the dependence of rotors on the lee wave amplitude, Doyle and Durran (2002) also conducted a series of simulations with varying mountain heights and interface

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