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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

to produce snowstorms on the lee side of the lakes during the autumn and winter seasons. Under suitable conditions (that involve the lake–air temperature difference, airflow, and stability in the boundary layer), strong organized convection may develop. The resulting lines or bands of clouds can produce considerable amounts of snow and are known as lake-effect snowstorms. Classic storms that occur on the cold-air side of synoptic-scale systems (i.e., synoptic events) tend to occur under stable

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Alan J. Geer, Peter Bauer, and Christopher W. O’Dell

; Mace and Benson-Troth 2002 ; Barker 2008 ). However, the atmospheric state is important, and maximum overlap occurs preferentially in strong ascent and in convectively unstable conditions ( Naud et al. 2008 ). To represent subgrid variability in radiative transfer simulations, an independent column approximation (ICA) is often used. Here, the grid box is divided into a set of independent subcolumns with radiative transfer done separately for each. Cloud distributions in each subcolumn are assigned

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Chinnawat Surussavadee and David H. Staelin

-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5; Dudhia et al. 2005 ) and then independently validated by large experiments over a wide range of geographic and meteorological conditions. Both modeling and observational approaches are explored in this paper, in which data from 787 global rain gauges for 2006 and 2007 in less hilly regions are compared with Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) surface precipitation retrievals to determine systematic biases and

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

Polarization (CALIOP) lidar, trails closely behind CloudSat in tight formation to achieve maximum overlap between the observations. CALIOP is most sensitive to thin high-level cirrus, aerosols, and boundary layer structures, providing a complementary observation to CloudSat . Polarization and Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar (PARASOL) and Aura round off the A-Train formation. This paper provides an update on progress to exploit the sensitivity

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

CPR can experience high levels of attenuation under certain meteorological conditions (e.g., heavy liquid precipitation, melting precipitation, high-cloud liquid water contents, and/or large columnar water vapor amounts), it is assumed that the majority of snowfall cases in this study will be largely immune to severe attenuation effects. The resulting dataset after applying these conditions was populated by over 4.9 million snowfall occurrences, which composed about 3% of the total possible CPR

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

meteorological measurements across the continent extremely challenging. Until 1980, real-time measurements of surface weather conditions in many remote regions of the Antarctic were unavailable largely because of the inaccessibility of these areas by personnel. With the introduction of unstaffed automatic weather stations (AWS) to supplement the few staffed field camps already in place, daily meteorological measurements are now taken in real time at over 100 locations across the continent ( Stearns et al

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