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D. M. Rodgers, K. W. Howard, and E. C. Johnston

displayed satellite-observable characteristics which satisfied the MCC criteria described by Maddox. Details of the life cycles of the 37 cases are given and several specific cases are discussed. Current and proposed future- research will focus on what are perceived to be key questions surrounding these important weather systems. This annual summary is offered as a starting point for scientists interested in pursuing studies of mesoscale convective weather systems.1. Introduction Mesoscale convective

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Edward N. Rappaport

–Simpson hurricane scale; Simpson (1974) ]. All but one tropical cyclone (Erika) formed in the western part of the hurricane basin at relatively high latitudes, 22°–32°N ( Fig. 1 ). In contrast, 11 of the 13 tropical cyclones in 1996 formed south of 22°N. Most of 1997 systems originated in association with low-level frontal boundaries or upper-level disturbances. In general, these systems were rather short lived and weak, encountering strong vertical wind shear and rather cool waters after just a few days

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Michael J. Brennan, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle Mainelli, and Todd B. Kimberlain

both Nicaragua and Honduras. Monetary damage figures are not available. Wind and high surf caused minor damage on Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao, while wind and lightning caused minor damage on St. Vincent and the Grenadines. g. Tropical Storm Gabrielle The genesis of Gabrielle can be traced to a low pressure area that formed along the coast of Georgia on 3 September. This low developed along a frontal boundary that moved off the southeastern coast of the United States on 1 September. After forming

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

east-northeastward at 20–25 kt, and over waters just above 26°C—factors not normally associated with major hurricanes. Only Hurricane Ellen of 1973 attained major hurricane status farther to the north. While the basic environmental current surrounding Alex was low in shear, the unexpected strengthening of Alex remains difficult to explain. By late on 5 August Alex had moved north of the Gulf Stream over sub-20°C waters and was weakening rapidly. Moving at 40–45 kt, Alex weakened to a tropical storm

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James L. Franklin, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

force winds. There were no reports of damage associated with Florence. However, rip currents generated by the hurricane were blamed for three surf deaths in North Carolina on 12 September. g. Hurricane Gordon, 14–18 September Gordon was the first of the season's two tropical storms to make landfall in the United States, but is more notable for its deadly effects in Guatemala. 1) Synoptic history A tropical wave crossed the west coast of Africa on 4 September and tracked westward across the tropical

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

winds at 1800 UTC 10 June. After landfall, Arlene spread 75–175 mm of rain over the central and eastern United States with a maximum reported total of 249.9 mm at Lake Toxaway, North Carolina. A Russian exchange student died in a rip current triggered by Arlene on 10 June at Miami Beach. The storm caused minimal property damage. b. Tropical Storm Bret Bret formed from a tropical wave accompanied by a weak area of surface low pressure that crossed Central America and eastern Mexico during 24–27 June

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

Yucatan Peninsula. Strong southwesterly shear in the Gulf of Mexico kept the main area of convection displaced from the circulation center, and there was little change in Alberto’s strength until the following day. As the storm interacted with the deep warm waters of the Loop Current early on 12 June, convection increased. By late morning, a circulation center had reformed near the convection about 60 n mi to the northeast of its previous position ( Fig. 4 ), and Alberto’s maximum winds increased

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

; a man was killed by a falling tree in Atlanta, Georgia; and two swimmers drowned at Panama City Beach, Florida, in rip currents produced by Bill. Much of the wind damage was downed branches and trees that caused power outages across the eastern portion of southeastern Louisiana and coastal Mississippi. The most significant storm surge floods occurred in coastal sections of southeastern Louisiana, primarily in southern Terrebone Parish where a levee was breached and overtopped in the Montegut

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

Bonnie near that time. The ridge to the north of Bonnie temporarily weakened and the steering currents collapsed. The hurricane then drifted northward for a period of 18–24 h. Thereafter, the subtropical ridge reintensified, forcing Bonnie to move northwestward and then northward toward the coast of North Carolina, during which time the hurricane maintained winds near 100 kt. After slight weakening of the hurricane, the eye of Bonnie passed just east of Cape Fear around 2130 UTC 26 August and then

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

, Hawaii, provides TC warnings for Southern Hemisphere TCs east of 180° that are included in this summary. Although the boundaries of the JTWC’s area of responsibility are not strictly the boundaries of the Eastern Hemisphere, and the few TCs of the South Pacific east of the 180° meridian are included, the area covered by this summary will be referred to as the Eastern Hemisphere. Because JTWC’s main focus is on the TCs of the western North Pacific, the summary of the TCs in this basin is more

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