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Kevin D. Ash, Ronald L. Schumann III, and Gregg C. Bowser

precipitation forecasts, users form mental representations of uncertainty according to their own experiences or perceptions ( Morss et al. 2008 , 2010 ). Similarly, nonmeteorologists’ mental schemas of uncertainty for visual representations of tornado warnings may be very different from those of meteorologists. Thus, it is prudent to investigate how the general public interprets the current deterministic-style SBW visual format and begin to understand how a change from a deterministic-style to a

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Danielle E. Nagele and Joseph E. Trainor

Erickson 2010 ), the importance of being precise becomes more apparent. Given this information, in 2007 the NWS began using a new warning method called storm-based warnings (SBWs). The SBW method attempts to add geographic specificity by issuing warnings that are not specifically restricted to geopolitical boundaries ( NWS 2007 ). These polygons are constructed based on the storm motion and the location of the main updraft. While there is no set method for determining the boundaries for the polygon

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Carolyn Kousky

comparisons of aid given with damages from the disasters. Section 4 presents the results of econometric analyses designed to generate hypotheses about the determinants of federal disaster aid. Section 5 concludes the paper. 2. Background on disaster aid The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, passed in 1988 and later amended, provides the current authority for federal disaster relief in the United States. Before federal dollars can be disbursed after a disaster, the

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Walker S. Ashley, Stephen Strader, Troy Rosencrants, and Andrew J. Krmenec

increased though time ( Changnon et al. 2000 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Field et al. 2012 ). Uncovering and quantifying the source(s) of these trends is an area of continual dialogue and controversy in hazard assessment research (e.g., Trenberth et al. 2011 ; Kunkel et al. 2013 ), largely because of the inadequacies of current geophysical event and socioeconomic datasets ( Kunkel et al. 1999 ; Höppe and Pielke 2006 ; Lerner-Lam 2007 ; Bouwer 2011 ; Kahn and Kelman 2012 ). However, certainties do exist

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Joseph T. Ripberger, Hank C. Jenkins-Smith, Carol L. Silva, Deven E. Carlson, and Matthew Henderson

-time data, which is difficult to collect via mainstream surveys, at least in the current environment. As such, researchers have directed their efforts toward the development of a new suite of tools that leverage the massive amount of information that members of the public transmit and/or broadcast via social media to measure fluctuations of public attention. The logic underlying such measures is rather simple—the more people talk about a particular issue, topic, or hazard (via Twitter, Facebook, Google

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