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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

processes at high latitudes. In 2007, the Canadian CloudSat /Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Validation Project (C3VP) field campaign took place in south-central Ontario in Canada. C3VP was a multinational, multiagency field experiment hosted by Environment Canada in and around the Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments (CARE) about 80 km north of Toronto, Ontario. GPM’s participation in C3VP was aimed at improving space-based snowfall detection and

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M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Paul Houser, Roshan Shrestha, and Valentine G. Anantharaj

1. Introduction Precipitation and radiation are the most important input forcings driving land surface models (LSM), whereas land cover, soil properties, and topography are secondary effects that influence the partitioning of these forcings between canopy interception, soil layers, runoff, and atmosphere ( Wei et al. 2008 ). Knowledge of temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation is crucial for producing realistic land surface simulations that enhance our understanding of hydrologic

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation radar (PR) was the first active spaceborne microwave instrument and has been collecting tropical precipitation data since 1997, but its highly inclined orbit, combined with its minimum detectable signal (MDS) of near 18 dB Z e , precludes it from frequently and effectively observing snowfall events. True global active snowfall measurements have been available since the launch of CloudSat ( Stephens et al. 2002 ) and its 94-GHz nadir-looking Cloud

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Hilawe Semunegus, Wesley Berg, John J. Bates, Kenneth R. Knapp, and Christian Kummerow

by the U.S. Navy’s Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) and the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). All data referenced in this paper are from the seven channels that were measured from SSM/I instruments flown on F-8 , F-10 , F-11 , F-13 , F-14 , and F-15 satellites: the 19-GHz vertical and horizontally polarized (19V and 19H, respectively), the 22-GHz vertically polarized (22V), the 37-GHz vertically and horizontally polarized (37V and 37H), and the 85-GHz

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Long S. Chiu and Roongroj Chokngamwong

1. Introduction Oceanic precipitation is a major component of the hydrological cycle and climate processes. The oceans cover about 70% of the earth’s surface where most of the freshwater exchange occurs. The major driving force for atmospheric circulations also comes from the latent heat release associated with precipitation processes. Global precipitation is linked to the surface energy budget through evaporation, which occurs mostly over oceans. The understanding of trends and variability of

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

radiation penetrates clouds, resulting in a direct signal of the sea surface state at the satellite receiver with only moderate influence by atmospheric hydrometeors. With the additional use of SST data, estimates of the sea surface evaporation become possible. Moreover, it is possible to detect precipitation by the radiation that is emitted from hydrometeors. At higher microwave frequencies the radiation is strongly influenced by scattering at ice particles, which are an additional indicator for

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