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Alison M. Meadow, Daniel B. Ferguson, Zack Guido, Alexandra Horangic, Gigi Owen, and Tamara Wall

that was part of the development of long-term climate policy at the Dutch, European, and global scales ( Berk et al. 2002 ). The project was designed as a series of workshops with the objectives of 1) exploring long-term targets for stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions; 2) exploring the most promising options for long-term international climate policy and their implications for the medium term; 3) enhancing the understanding between countries with different positions and interests in climate change

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Savin S. Chand, Lynda E. Chambers, Mike Waiwai, Philip Malsale, and Elisabeth Thompson

months in advance (e.g., Webster 2013 ). However, such models are expensive to build and maintain, and are only run by a few national or multinational government organizations, including the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and the Met Office. Small island developing countries in the Pacific are often unable to run these complex models for a number of reasons, including budget constraints and limited resources. Even

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Sandy Smith-Nonini

1. Introduction As a gregarious adolescent, riding ponies and climbing trees in the 1960s, summer was my favorite season. But things have changed. The year 2016 was the warmest year since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, and the third year in a row of record-breaking surface temperatures, according to both NASA and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NASA 2017 ). So summer is now a deadly season: 70 000 people died from a 2003 heat wave in Europe ( Robine et al. 2008

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Mathew Alexander Stiller-Reeve, David B. Stephenson, and Thomas Spengler

Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering; ISSRE 2000 , IEEE, 124–135 , doi: 10.1109/ISSRE.2000.885866 . Brooks, M. S. , 2013 : Accelerating innovation in climate services: The 3 E’s for climate service providers . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 94 , 807 – 819 , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00087.1 . Buontempo, C. , Hewitt C. D. , Doblas-Reyes F. J. , and Dessai S. , 2014 : Climate service development, delivery and use in Europe at monthly to inter-annual timescales . Climate Risk Manage. , 6

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Peter Rudiak-Gould

change and also fail to detect changes in climate. While the authors allow that “some, such as those living in Alaska, Northern Canada, and Northern Europe… are currently responding to their direct contact with current physical environmental impacts of climate change” ( Swim et al. 2009 , p. 55, emphasis added), this point is not emphasized in most of the report, which elsewhere states baldly, “people do not directly experience climate change” ( Swim et al. 2009 , p. 17). In an article on the

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Valeria Hernandez, Vincent Moron, Florencia Fossa Riglos, and Eugenia Muzi

. Climate Res. , 27 , 19 – 31 , doi: 10.3354/cr027019 . Meze-Hausken, E. , 2007 : Seasons in the sun—Weather and climate front-page news stories in Europe’s rainiest city, Bergen, Norway . Int. J. Biometeor. , 52 , 17 – 31 , doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0064-5 . Meze-Hausken, E. , 2008 : On the (im-)possibilities of defining human climate thresholds . Climatic Change , 89 , 299 – 324 , doi: 10.1007/s10584-007-9392-7 . Pengue, W. A. , 2005 : Transgenic crops in Argentina: The ecological and

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Oluwatoyin Dare Kolawole, Moseki Ronald Motsholapheko, Barbara Ntombi Ngwenya, Olekae Thakadu, Gagoitseope Mmopelwa, and Donald Letsholo Kgathi

–17. [Available online at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTENVMAT/64199955-1203372965627/21654310/EMatters_07.pdf .] Nyong, A. , Adesina F. , and Osman Elasha B. , 2007 : The value of indigenous knowledge in climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies in the African Sahel . Mitig. Adapt. Strategies Global Change , 12 , 787 – 797 , doi: 10.1007/s11027-007-9099-0 . Olesen, J. E. , and Bindi M. , 2002 : Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use

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Daniel B. Ferguson, Anna Masayesva, Alison M. Meadow, and Michael A. Crimmins

-12-S-5, USDA, 205 pp. [Available online at https://www.agcensus.usda.gov/Publications/2012/Online_Resources/American_Indian_Reservations/AMINDIAN.pdf .] NDMC , 2016 : Drought plans and planning. National Drought Mitigation Center, accessed 5 March 2016. [Available online at http://drought.unl.edu/Planning/DroughtPlans.aspx .] Pavao-Zuckerman, B. , and Reitz E. J. , 2006 : Introduction and adoption of animals from Europe. Environment, Origins, and Population , Vol. 3, Handbook of North

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Chie Sakakibara

differences between native (Iñupiat) food and readymade (European–American) food. Another fact to consider is that the number of supermarkets in the Arctic started growing around the time when the IWC came to terminate indigenous whaling rights, as if the supermarkets arrived to the Arctic to replace indigenous food culture. However, by encompassing nutrition, cultural significance, and emotional and social importance, muktuk has undoubtedly come to serve as a predominant cultural emblem representing the

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