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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of CO 2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere constitutes the largest, single-component flux in the global carbon cycle (e.g., Beer et al. 2010 ). Spatiotemporal patterns of flux exchange display pronounced variability between regions. The Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States represents one of the strongest carbon sinks in North America (e.g., Law et al. 2004 ; Law and Waring 2015 ). Accurate quantification of the magnitude of

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

heat fluxes. Soil and vegetation fluxes are calculated separately and then linearly combined into the total sensible and latent heat fluxes that form the lower boundary condition of the atmospheric model. A canopy turbulence model is used to calculate within canopy air temperatures and humidity. CABLE includes a multilayer soil model with six layers, with the deepest layer at 2.872 m. There are nine soil types used to prescribe hydraulic and thermal characteristics. The flow of water is

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

-surface temperatures and precipitation. The LULCC-induced warming is significantly driven by changes in surface hydrology due to reduced ET, while radiative forcing plays a secondary role ( Lawrence and Chase 2010 ). Most previous studies focused on the influence of LULCC on the surface air temperature, precipitation, and land–atmosphere fluxes (e.g., Brovkin et al. 1999 ; Betts et al. 2007 ; Oleson et al. 2004 ; Douglas et al. 2006 ; Lobell et al. 2006 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Lee et al. 2009 ). Only a few

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

radiation, evapotranspiration, and surface heat fluxes. These effects are likely to act locally, whereas biogeochemical effects are spread globally via relatively fast mixing in the atmosphere. Although we have a general understanding of the biogeophysical processes operating at continental to regional scales, it is difficult to exactly quantify such processes ( Levis 2010 ; Davin et al. 2014 ). Global studies on present and future climate come to the conclusion that the albedo effect gives colder

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

surface fluxes at various spatial scales. As a result, the U.S. National Research Council ( Jacob et al. 2005 ) has recommended expanding research into the influence of land-cover processes on climate as a forcing. It has been conjectured that the climate response to land-use and land-cover change could possibly even exceed greenhouse gas contributions, making for very important local, regional, and even global implications ( Dirmeyer et al. 2010 ). While other studies have investigated the Southeast

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

coupled to a land surface and urban modeling system that aimed to address emerging issues in urban areas ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). Our experiment uses the Noah land surface model (LSM) to model the land surface ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), thereby providing surface energy fluxes and surface skin temperatures that serve as the boundary conditions for the atmospheric model. While the original version of Noah LSM has a bulk parameterization for urban land use, our experiment uses a single-layer UCM to

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Edward Armstrong, Paul Valdes, Jo House, and Joy Singarayer

1. Introduction Human-induced land-use change (LUC), such as the conversion of natural land cover to agriculture, transforms the land surface, altering its structure and influencing biogeophysical processes such as albedo, leaf area index (LAI), seasonality, surface roughness, and moisture fluxes. This has implications for the surface energy balance, altering shortwave radiation (SW) and the partitioning of latent and sensible heat (e.g., Brovkin et al. 2009 ; Bala et al. 2007 ; Boisier et

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Keith J. Harding, Tracy E. Twine, and Yaqiong Lu

parameterization (CP). CPs are designed to resolve subgrid-scale vertical fluxes of mass, momentum, and latent heating when adequate spatial resolution prevents explicit resolution of these processes. The spatial resolution required to resolve convective precipitation varies by location and season. Over the central United States, convection-permitting simulations can be conducted during the warm season with a 10-km spatial resolution as precipitation is dynamically forced by the GPLLJ ( Harding and Snyder 2014

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Jean-Sébastien Landry, Navin Ramankutty, and Lael Parrott

tile instead of across the entire grid cell). The mixture approach is a variation of the mosaic approach, in which the latent and sensible heat fluxes from the different tiles of the same grid cell interact together ( Koster and Suarez 1992 ). The statistical–dynamical approach aims to represent the full range of heterogeneity across the entire grid cell through continuous probability density functions ( Avissar 1992 ). The resulting equations can be integrated analytically for very simplified

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

biophysical properties over the land through modifying the surface albedo, partitioning the surface energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes, and altering the roughness of the land surface, which subsequently can influence the climate ( Foley et al. 2003b ; Mahmood et al. 2014 ; McPherson 2007 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2010 ; Pielke 2005 ; Wang et al. 2006 ). Van Noorden (2006) stated that more vegetation can transfer more moisture into the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, and the darker surface of

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