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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

surface model used in this study to simulate soil moisture is the JULES model—a widely used tiled model of subgrid heterogeneity that simulates water and energy fluxes between a vertical profile of soil layers, vegetation, and the atmosphere ( Best et al. 2011 ). The JULES model uses meteorological forcing data, surface land cover data, soil properties data, and values for prognostic variables. The soil properties data were derived from the Digital Atlas of Australian Soils ( McKenzie et al. 2000

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Rafael Pimentel, Javier Herrero, Yijian Zeng, Zhongbo Su, and María J. Polo

the error to the physics of the model ( Reichle 2008 ). One way to quantify this model error is by including the uncertainties in both the forcing of the data and the model formulation ( Reichle 2008 ). In this study, a representative value of the variability was employed to perturb the forcing parameters. Considering that the time resolution of the meteorological data was 5 min and according to the time step of the modeling, 1 h, the standard deviation of the data was calculated every hour. The

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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

, with a north–south distance of about 100 km and an east–west distance of about 80 km. The lake connects to the Yangtze River to the north through a funnel-shaped area, with a wide mouth to the south and narrow head to the north. Thus, in the lake area, a north–south wind blows on most days. Only in July and August does the monsoon from the Indian Ocean force a south–north wind. The connecting funnel area yields a higher wind speed in the narrow head to the north and the wind speed decreases from

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