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G. Vaughan, J. Methven, D. Anderson, B. Antonescu, L. Baker, T. P. Baker, S. P. Ballard, K. N. Bower, P. R. A. Brown, J. Chagnon, T. W. Choularton, J. Chylik, P. J. Connolly, P. A. Cook, R. J. Cotton, J. Crosier, C. Dearden, J. R. Dorsey, T. H. A. Frame, M. W. Gallagher, M. Goodliff, S. L. Gray, B. J. Harvey, P. Knippertz, H. W. Lean, D. Li, G. Lloyd, O. Martínez–Alvarado, J. Nicol, J. Norris, E. Öström, J. Owen, D. J. Parker, R. S. Plant, I. A. Renfrew, N. M. Roberts, P. Rosenberg, A. C. Rudd, D. M. Schultz, J. P. Taylor, T. Trzeciak, R. Tubbs, A. K. Vance, P. J. van Leeuwen, A. Wellpott, and A. Woolley

by diabatic processes (those that add or remove heat from the air) such as latent heating and cooling associated with phase changes of water, fluxes of heat and moisture from the Earth’s surface, and radiative flux convergence. Key elements in diabatic processes are turbulence, convection, and cloud physics—small-scale phenomena that cannot be represented explicitly in numerical weather prediction models. They must therefore be parameterized, introducing a source of systematic uncertainty in the

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Oscar Martínez-Alvarado, Laura H. Baker, Suzanne L. Gray, John Methven, and Robert S. Plant

–Keyser cyclones. The first region is the low-level jet ahead of the cold front in the warm sector of the cyclone. This low-level jet is part of the broader airstream known as the warm conveyor belt, which transports heat and moisture northward and eastward while ascending from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere ( Browning 1971 ; Harrold 1973 ). The second region of strong winds develops to the southwest and south of the cyclone center as a bent-back front wraps around the cyclone. The strong winds

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