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Paul E. La Violette

Sahara. NOAA-2 infrared data received by a field satellite receiverstation and computer-enhanced into thermal imagery aided in directing the five flights of a research aircraftover the region's most interesting thermal features. This imagery showed that the upwelling extendedfrom the Canary Islands southward to 20N in the region of Cape Blanc, and that the aircraft survey wouldbest be made along the coast between 26 and 28N. The aircraft used an airborne radiation thermometerto collect data showing

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Bryan C. Weare, P. Ted Strub, and Michael D. Samuel

surface heating of the tropical Pacific Oceanbetween 30-N and 40-S are calculated and portrayed. These flux elements were derived by using the bulkformulas and about 5 million marine weather reports for the years 1957-76. In addition to illustrating themean solar, latent heat, infrared radiation and sensible heat fluxes, annual mean values of the atmosphericvariables which contribute to those fluxes also are illustrated. A simple error analysis is carried out fromwhich it is concluded that the 95

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Guenter Warnecke, Lewis J. Allison, Larry M. McMillin, and Karl-Heinz Szekielda

feasibility ofthis method is explored by means of experimentalresults from measurements aboard the Nimbus IIsatellite.2. Theory of infrared sea surface temperature measurements from space The thermal radiation leaving the earth's atmosphereat satellite altitudes and measured through a filtersystem can be described by the radiative transfer46 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLU~~E1 equation, 1 ~I' djkI

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J. Carter Ohlmann, David A. Siegel, and Curtis D. Mobley

concentration affects the attenuation of solar radiation within the visible spectral wavebands and thus has little influence on solar transmission within the top meter where near-infrared energy is substantial. Clouds alter the radiance distribution through the direct to diffuse light ratio and the spectral shape of the incident irradiance relative to the total irradiance. Clouds increase solar transmission in the upper few meters by causing a relatively greater portion of the incident solar energy to exist

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Andrew F. Bunker

times the latent heat ofcondensation of water vapor; SHF is the sensible heatflux; SR~,~ and SR^b,, are the shortwave solar radiation amounts absorbed by the sea and by the atmosphere; IR,~, is the downward flux of infrared radiationat the sea surface; IR~T is the upward flux at the seasurface; and IR(T is the net upward flux at the 100-roblevel. The flux of sensible heat has been found fromBudyko's (1963) equation:SHF = cvoC, (T~-- T,) (W) = 0.52 (T~-- T~)W [cal cm-~ day

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P. Y. Deschamps and R. Frouin

-night surface temperature differences measured in the infrared (10.5-12.5 ~am channel) by the HCMRsatellite experiment frequently show large diurnal heating (several -C) of the upper layer of the ocean duringthe summer months in the Mediterranean Sea when the wind speed is low. When observed in the 0.5-1.1 ~mchannel, glitter reflectance--i.e., direct solar radiation speculafiy reflected towards the sensor--correlates withdiurnal heating. Glitter reflectance has been modeled to retrieve an equivalent wind

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André Morel and David Antoine

-optical state" (Smith andBaker 1978) &the upper ocean, and namely its chlorophylMike pigment content, will be soon continuouslydetermined from space using operational ocean colorsensors like the SeaWIFS and its successors. This pigment concentration is the appropriate variable that canbe directly used to predict in an accurate way the vertical profile of the heating rate. At sea level, about half of the solar radiation lies inwavelengths longer than the visible spectral region. Thesolar infrared (IR

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Thierry Huck

transition from a steady to an oscillatory state via a Hopf bifurcation can be interpreted in a somewhat different way: we propose that the limit cycles of the oscillations arise when the growth rate of perturbations (due to the baroclinically unstable western boundary current region) exceeds the diffusive timescale resulting from the cumulative damping action of turbulent oceanic–atmospheric diffusivities and infrared back radiation. On these interdecadal timescales, the atmosphere is restricted to a

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P. S. Brown Jr., J. P. Pandolfo, and S. J. Thoren

atmosphere-ocean boundary layers to allowthe prediction (rather than the prespecification) of sea-surface temperature, and by taking into accountmodel-generated temporal variations in the vertical structures of the atmospheric transmissivity with regardto solar and infrared radiation. The two-day period used for this demonstration is characterized by moderately disturbed tropical marineconditions with intermittent periods of light wind as contrasted to the generally steady trade-wind andmidlatitude

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P. Krishna Rao, A. E. Strong, and P. Koffler

the ITOSsystem see the TOS Project Report (1970). These radiation measurements are temporarily storedon board the satellite for later transmission to theground and for subsequent global mapping. For theconvenience of those within transmission range of thesatellite, the SR also transmits data for immediate localuse directly to Automatic Picture Transmission (APT)ground stations. The IR transmission is known asDirect Readout Infrared (DR/R). Data obtained fromthe DRIR can be displayed on a

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