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Jessica M. Erlingis, Jonathan J. Gourley, and Jeffrey B. Basara

regions as well as the predominant flow paths at several levels in the lower atmosphere. Section 4 provides a synthesis of the first part of the manuscript and introduces the content of the companion paper. 2. Methodology This study uses the wind fields in North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR; NCEP 2005 ; Mesinger et al. 2006 ) data to calculate kinematic backward trajectories for a database of flash flood events in order to assess the geographic origins of parcels that contribute to flash

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Joseph Bellier, Michael Scheuerer, and Thomas M. Hamill

), lifted index (LI; Galway 1956 ), and total totals index (TT; Miller 1975 ). The hypothesis is that the atmosphere instability is associated with a risk of convection and then a higher spatial variability of rainfall, hence we assume a positive relationship between SD ( i , j ) and the above indices, except SI and LI for which a negative relationship is assumed (lower values are associated with higher instability). The second group gathers kinematic predictors: storm relative helicity (SRH

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Joel R. Norris, F. Martin Ralph, Reuben Demirdjian, Forest Cannon, Byron Blomquist, Christopher W. Fairall, J. Ryan Spackman, Simone Tanelli, and Duane E. Waliser

, along with values for all the other subregions. The range of CIMC among subregions is substantial, varying from 10.0 mm h −1 for R03 to −7.4 mm h −1 for R06 and greatly exceeding the uncertainty of individual values. Nonetheless, this sizeable spatial variability largely averages out in the entire budget region since CIMC for B00 is only 0.7 mm h −1 . Fig . 11. Kinematic diagnostic profiles derived from the G-IV dropsondes composing the entire budget region (B00; black) and subregions with the

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Xuejian Cao, Guangheng Ni, Youcun Qi, and Bo Liu

landscape-based green infrastructure for stormwater management in suburban catchments . Hydrol. Processes , 32 , 2346 – 2361 , https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.13144 . 10.1002/hyp.13144 Xiao , Q. , E. G. McPherson , J. R. Simpson , and S. L. Ustin , 2007 : Hydrologic processes at the urban residential scale . Hydrol. Processes , 21 , 2174 – 2188 , https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6482 . 10.1002/hyp.6482 Xiong , Y. , and C. S. Melching , 2005 : Comparison of kinematic-wave and nonlinear

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Guotao Cui, Roger Bales, Robert Rice, Michael Anderson, Francesco Avanzi, Peter Hartsough, and Martha Conklin

– 18 436 , https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2895397 . 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2895397 Marks , D. , A. Winstral , M. Reba , J. Pomeroy , and M. Kumar , 2013 : An evaluation of methods for determining during-storm precipitation phase and the rain/snow transition elevation at the surface in a mountain basin . Adv. Water Resour. , 55 , 98 – 110 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.11.012 . 10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.11.012 Marwitz , J. D. , 1983 : The kinematics of orographic

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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

comprehensive climatology of moisture transport for the Northeast, the eastern United States, and adjacent Atlantic at large. This kinematics of water vapor transport will provide the atmospheric foundation for understanding the causes behind observed and projected changes in precipitation in the Northeast. This is the first paper in a series of three characterizing the relationship between moisture transport patterns and precipitation in the eastern United States. This first paper develops the moisture

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Hao Huang, Kun Zhao, Haonan Chen, Dongming Hu, Peiling Fu, Qing Lin, and Zhengwei Yang

-band polarimetric radar utilizing specific attenuation and specific differential phase. Part I: Algorithm description . J. Hydrometeor. , 20 , 985 – 997 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JHM-D-18-0071.1 . 10.1175/JHM-D-18-0071.1 Wu , D. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Kinematics and microphysics of convection in the outer rainband of Typhoon Nida (2016) revealed by polarimetric radar . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 2147 – 2159 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-17-0320.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0320.1 Zhang , J. , and

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Arianna Cauteruccio, Enrico Chinchella, Mattia Stagnaro, and Luca G. Lanza

the gauge were stretched upward to better resolve upward air motion due to buoyancy. Thin layers were added on the gauge surface so as to better reproduce the near wall velocity profile. For fluid dynamic simulations, the fluid air was modeled as a Newtonian incompressible fluid with kinematic viscosity υ a = 1.2 × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 and density ρ a = 1.3 kg m −3 at a reference environmental temperature T a = 0°C that acts as the threshold between solid and liquid precipitation. At the inlet

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

topographic slope component ( Maxwell et al. 2016 ). The van Genuchten (1980) equations used for hydraulic relationships are given in terms of hydraulic head h as (6) S w ⁡ ( h ) = s sat − s res [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) + s res , (7) k r ⁡ ( h ) = { 1 − ⁡ ( α h ) n − 1 [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) n ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) } [ 1 + ⁡ ( α h ) β ] ⁡ ( 1 − 1 n ) / 2 . ParFlow also applies the two-dimensional kinematic wave equation as an overland flow boundary condition, and Manning’s equation establishes flow depth

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Kalimur Rahman and Firat Y. Testik

e 2 = C d   U t 2 D 2 υ a 2 = 2 ⁡ ( ρ d − ρ a ) V g D 2 ρ a A υ a 2 . Here, υ a is the kinematic viscosity of air. Once a unique relationship between X and Re is established, Re can be computed using the value of X , which can be calculated from the known physical properties of the drop and ambient conditions using Eq. (4) . The terminal fall speed of a drop can then be estimated using the following equation without use of the drag coefficient information: (5) U t = μ a Re ρ a D . Beard

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