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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

was due to land–sea breezes. While this and similar ideas were considered by other authors (e.g., Zhou and Wang 2006 ; Qian 2008 ; Fujita et al. 2010 , 2011 ; Wapler and Lane 2012 ), in a study on convection in the Panama Bight, Mapes et al. (2003) argued that sea breezes do not have the right speed nor the outward extent to explain the propagation of convection, and suggested that gravity waves were instead responsible. This hypothesis was used in the modeling study of Love et al. (2011

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is the leading mode of rainfall variability in many regions of the world, particularly in tropical islands and in continental regions adjacent to warm waters ( Dai 2001 ; Ohsawa et al. 2001 ; Yang and Slingo 2001 ; Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Nesbitt and Zipser 2003 ; Yang and Smith 2006 ; Kikuchi and Wang 2008 ; Johnson 2011 ; Ruppert et al. 2013 ; Chen et al. 2016 ). The Maritime Continent (MC) is exemplary for this, where prominent land–sea breeze

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

1. Introduction As a dominant source of latent heating, the tropical Maritime Continent (MC) exerts profound influence over global circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Krishnamurti et al. 1973 ). The persistence of upward motion here likely owes to its unique abundance of land, sea, and coastline: the resulting combination of moisture availability from a warm sea surface and strong diurnal solenoidal circulations ensures daily thunderstorm activity, and hence strong tropospheric heating in the mean

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

important for understanding the role of moist convection in climate in general, and particularly as it relates to the MJO. Fig . 1. Pentad OLR anomalies for the simulated MJO event based on OMI, reconstructed using the OMI principal components for each pentad. The anomalies shown are only for the 20–96-day anomalies represented by OMI and therefore do not directly consider the mesoscale convective structure of the MJO. Positive (negative) OLR anomalies correspond to suppressed (enhanced) convection

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