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Tammy M. Weckwerth, Kristy J. Weber, David D. Turner, and Scott M. Spuler

forecasting skill and for obtaining improved accuracy in QPF skill. This latter report noted that “moisture and BL wind field observations are likely to be even more important on the mesoscale.” ( NRC 2012 , p. 87). Optimal temporal resolution requirements for profiling water vapor ranges from better than 1 h for monitoring purposes to better than 1 min for turbulence studies (e.g., Weckwerth et al. 1999 ; Turner et al. 2014 ; Wulfmeyer et al. 2015 ). The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) validated

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Elizabeth N. Smith, Joshua G. Gebauer, Petra M. Klein, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Jeremy A. Gibbs

, and NLLJs. Primary data sources for NLLJ cases were the boundary layer profiles measured by mobile and fixed PECAN Integrated Sounding Arrays (PISAs). These datasets included profiles of dynamic and thermodynamic parameters obtained at high temporal and vertical resolution using Doppler lidars, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometers (AERIs), radar wind profilers, radiosondes, and microwave radiometers (MWRs), providing observations to describe the SBL and NLLJ evolution. There were four

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Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

lidars aboard the UWKA. These observations are used in an effort to understand the lifting mechanism and effective source level for CI in LC regions. Specifically, we use the airborne lidar data to determine the actual vertical displacement for parcels at all possible source levels and compare this against the vertical distance to the parcel’s LFC. The UWKA completed a total of 20 transects across three convergent boundary zones leading this MCS. The first zone, referred to as Region I ( Fig. 2 ), is

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Dana Mueller, Bart Geerts, Zhien Wang, Min Deng, and Coltin Grasmick

associated with a nocturnal MCS. This observational case study is unique in that it explores the evolution of the vertical structure of a bore. While other fixed, surface-based profiling observations depict a blend of distance and time evolution, this study uses airborne profiling lidar data, providing a series of quasi-instantaneous vertical transects, at a time resolution corresponding with the frequency of flight traverses across the bore (in this case 10–15 min). Another advantage to using an

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Samuel K. Degelia, Xuguang Wang, and David J. Stensrud

profilers similar to that recommended by the National Research Council (2009) . The observations assimilated here consist of atmospheric emitted radiance interferometers (AERIs; Turner and Löhnert 2014 ), Doppler wind lidars (e.g., Menzies and Hardesty 1989 ), radio wind profilers (e.g., Benjamin et al. 2004 ), high-frequency rawinsondes, and special surface data taken from fixed and mobile PECAN platforms. Assimilating similar datasets individually has been shown to improve convective

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J. W. Wilson, S. B. Trier, D. W. Reif, R. D. Roberts, and T. M. Weckwerth

parameters. The UWKA mostly flew at an elevation of roughly 2.15 km MSL. The primary leg of interest was flown from west to east between 0408 and 0432 UTC. Convection initiation occurred 25 km north of the track at 0405 UTC. Other flight legs helped identify the location of a wind-shift line to be discussed later. Particularly important were Doppler lidar observations from TWOLF and MP3 to help determine vertical wind profiles and cloud base and to detect atmospheric gravity waves. In addition, there was

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Kevin R. Haghi, Bart Geerts, Hristo G. Chipilski, Aaron Johnson, Samuel Degelia, David Imy, David B. Parsons, Rebecca D. Adams-Selin, David D. Turner, and Xuguang Wang

the elevated convective available potential energy (CAPE) and convective inhibition for specific source layers within/above the SBL (e.g., Grasmick et al. 2018 ) requires accurate temperature and water vapor profile observations. AERIs are able to make reasonably accurate water vapor measurements in the lowest 1–2 km above the ground, but the information content decreases markedly above this level ( Turner and Löhnert 2014 ). Additional observations, such as those from a water vapor lidar, can be

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David M. Loveless, Timothy J. Wagner, David D. Turner, Steven A. Ackerman, and Wayne F. Feltz

bores will change their characteristics over the course of their lifetimes. Koch et al. (2008) used a combination of observations and numerical simulations to identify changes in the turbulent nature of the bore over the course of its life cycle. They identified that the majority of turbulent kinetic energy is generated by the shear stress from the strong along-bore flow associated with the low-level jet (LLJ). Additionally, they found that early in the life cycle of the bore, in what they called

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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, Kevin R. Haghi, and David B. Parsons

from nocturnal radiative cooling. Undulations in the potential temperature contours were observed after the cooling aloft, consistent with the passage of the undular bore. Both the undulations and lifting of potential temperature contours were consistent with the vertical velocity observations described above. In the DC8 DIAL and UWKA Raman lidar retrievals ( Figs. 5d–h ), abrupt moistening aloft was also consistent with the mean layer lifting resulting from bore passage and was therefore also used

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Bart Geerts, David Parsons, Conrad L. Ziegler, Tammy M. Weckwerth, Michael I. Biggerstaff, Richard D. Clark, Michael C. Coniglio, Belay B. Demoz, Richard A. Ferrare, William A. Gallus Jr., Kevin Haghi, John M. Hanesiak, Petra M. Klein, Kevin R. Knupp, Karen Kosiba, Greg M. McFarquhar, James A. Moore, Amin R. Nehrir, Matthew D. Parker, James O. Pinto, Robert M. Rauber, Russ S. Schumacher, David D. Turner, Qing Wang, Xuguang Wang, Zhien Wang, and Joshua Wurman

, 406 – 419 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0406:DVIPAT>2.0.CO;2 Wang , Z. , and Coauthors , 2011 : Observations of boundary layer water vapor and aerosol structures with a compact airborne Raman lidar. Fifth Symp. on Lidar Atmospheric Applications , Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 3.6. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/91Annual/webprogram/Paper187254.html .] Weckwerth , and Coauthors , 2004 : An overview of the

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