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Thomas R. Parish

critical to the formation of the nocturnal wind maximum such as discussed by Wexler (1961) . In this study, the LLJ environment is viewed through the lens of the North American Mesoscale Forecast System. Composite grids are assembled for a 5-yr period for cases of strong LLJs and non-LLJ episodes. Comparison of the gridded datasets enables key differences to be identified and offers another view into the Blackadar–Holton debate. 2. Composite grids for cases of the LLJ As part of the Plains Elevated

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Alan Shapiro, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Joshua G. Gebauer

study of IOP19, Reif and Bluestein (2017) classified the CI on this night as a no-boundary mode. Their figure of the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) analysis of the 700-hPa omega (vertical-pressure velocity) field at 0600 UTC showed ascent over much of central and western KS ( Fig. 16 ), 11 though with much mesoscale variability. The peak GFS value ( ) over central KS is similar to the 5 cm s −1 estimate at Ellis. Fig . 16. 700-hPa GFS analysis of ω at 0600 UTC 5 Jul 2015. Figure

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Shushi Zhang, David B. Parsons, and Yuan Wang

. Biggerstaff , and B. F. Smull , 1989 : Interpretation of Doppler weather radar displays of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 70 , 608 – 619 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1989)070<0608:IODWRD>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1989)070<0608:IODWRD>2.0.CO;2 Jahn , D. E. , and W. A. Gallus Jr ., 2018 : Impacts of modifications to a local planetary boundary layer scheme on forecasts of the Great Plains low-level jet environment . Wea. Forecasting , 33

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David B. Parsons, Kevin R. Haghi, Kelton T. Halbert, Blake Elmer, and Junhong Wang

, several studies (e.g., Davis et al. 2003 ; Clark et al. 2007 ; Surcel et al. 2010 ) have demonstrated that advancing forecast skill in numerical weather prediction models for these nocturnal systems has proven elusive. The low skill is important, since researchers have long established that summer thunderstorms and convective precipitation are most frequent after sunset over a broad region of the Great Plains, ranging from Oklahoma to southern Manitoba, and between about 92° and 100°W ( Kincer 1916

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Evgeni Fedorovich, Jeremy A. Gibbs, and Alan Shapiro

, C. A. Clark , M. J. Mitchell , and K. M. Labas , 1997 : The Great Plains low-level jet during the warm season of 1993 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 2176 – 2192 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2176:TGPLLJ>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2176:TGPLLJ>2.0.CO;2 Augustine , J. A. , and F. Caracena , 1994 : Lower-tropospheric precursors to nocturnal MCS development over the central United States . Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 116 – 135 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0116:LTPTNM>2

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