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Ronald Gelaro, Rolf H. Langland, Simon Pellerin, and Ricardo Todling

section 2 is used to examine the impact of observations on 24-h forecasts from various analysis times during January 2007. The results reported here are for a baseline set of assimilated observations, defined as those observation types used in common by EC, GMAO, and NRL during the experimental period. Satellite observations in the baseline set include radiances from three Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites NOAA

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John E. Janowiak, Peter Bauer, Wanqiu Wang, Phillip A. Arkin, and Jon Gottschalck

Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) special collection in Monthly Weather Review . The primary focus is on the period November 2007–February 2008, which is a period when model forecast data were conveniently available and during which moderate-to-strong MJO activity was observed. 2. Data Model predictions of precipitation were obtained from the ECMWF and NCEP on a 2.5° latitude–longitude grid and are compared with observations in this study. The “observations” are high spatial and temporal

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Benoît Vié, Olivier Nuissier, and Véronique Ducrocq

update cycle for the whole month. In our strategy, the impact of uncertainty on synoptic-scale LBCs is represented through three ensembles using LBCs provided by a global EPS. A last ensemble assesses the uncertainty on convective-scale ICs through a convective-scale ensemble data assimilation technique. Instead of modifying the ICs for each member directly, before each data assimilation step, the observations are randomly perturbed according to their observational error. This technique is known to

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Thomas M. Hamill, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, Michael Fiorino, and Stanley G. Benjamin

’s quality control algorithms and forward observational operators, the full observational data stream that was ingested into the operational GSI was also ingested into the EnKF, including surface observations, rawinsondes, cloud-track winds, aircraft observations, satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultations, and satellite radiances. Satellite radiances were assimilated from the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) A and B

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