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Lee-Lueng Fu, Tong Lee, W. Timothy Liu, and Ronald Kwok

major issue for continuous monitoring of oceanic processes. Nevertheless, blended SST products based on AVHRR, passive microwave sensors (all-weather capability), and in situ measurements (e.g., Reynolds et al. 2007 ) have made significant contributions to ocean and climate research. The technologies for dedicated ocean observations were first demonstrated by the Skylab missions ( Krishen 1975 ), using microwave sensors with all-weather observing capability. This mission demonstrated the

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J. Bühl, S. Alexander, S. Crewell, A. Heymsfield, H. Kalesse, A. Khain, M. Maahn, K. Van Tricht, and M. Wendisch

system, and understanding of the relation between cloud microphysics, aerosols, life cycle, and optical properties is needed in order make projections about the future development of Earth’s climate ( Fan et al. 2016 ). This chapter summarizes how combined observations with optical instrumentation (active: lidars; passive: imaging spectrometers) and microwave sensors (active: radars; passive: microwave radiometers) can be used to derive crucial measurements about the microphysical, dynamical, and

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A. Korolev, G. McFarquhar, P. R. Field, C. Franklin, P. Lawson, Z. Wang, E. Williams, S. J. Abel, D. Axisa, S. Borrmann, J. Crosier, J. Fugal, M. Krämer, U. Lohmann, O. Schlenczek, M. Schnaiter, and M. Wendisch

microwave radiometer: (i) Lidar Although the lidar principle was initially demonstrated in the 1930s, the rapid development of modern lidar technology started only after the invention of the laser, especially the Q-switched laser, in the early 1960s. A variety of lidar systems are now available for cloud observations with wavelengths mainly between 0.35 and 1.6 μ m. Elastic lidars detect backscattering signals at the same wavelength as the transmitted laser radiation. Elastic lidars, which utilize high

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John S. Theon

Abstract

By 1984, more than a decade had passed since the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) weather and climate program had won approval for a new research mission. There was concern that it would be difficult to justify the budget of the program, so ideas were requested for a new research mission aimed at advancing our understanding of the weather and/or climate. More than a dozen proposals were submitted, including one by North, Wilheit, and Thiele for a mission to observe rainfall directly from space. They called it the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM).

Studies were conducted to demonstrate that the proposal was feasible by deploying airborne versions of the proposed precipitation radar, microwave radiometer, and visible-infrared radiometer over carefully documented ground-based observations of rainfall. Sampling studies were undertaken to assure that one satellite could adequately sample precipitation events, and advanced mission studies were undertaken to define the mission as well as its cost.

When it became obvious that the cost of the mission would severely limit chances of winning approval, it was decided to invite an international partner to share the cost. With the support of Dr. Bert Edelson, the NASA associate administrator, and through the cooperation of Dr. Nobuyoshi Fugono of Japan, it was possible to study the mission as a joint enterprise. Although the one-year joint mission study concluded that the mission was feasible, obtaining the funding in both countries was anything but simple. When Dr. North decided to leave NASA, Dr. Simpson was suggested as his successor as project scientist. Dr. Simpson's energy and determination were key to winning approval of TRMM by the U.S. Congress. Dr. Simpson had, as President of the American Meteorological Society, briefed Congressman Green of New York on the enormous potential scientific benefits of TRMM. The fiscal year 1991 NASA budget was amended, mandating a new start for TRMM. Once NASA had approval for the mission, Japan agreed to share the costs, and the rest is history. TRMM was launched in 1997 and continues to acquire unprecedented rainfall data on a global scale.

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D. D. Turner, E. J. Mlawer, and H. E. Revercomb

instruments (e.g., Raman lidars, global positioning systems, and microwave radiometers). However, because of the critical need to measure water vapor with the precision necessary to improve the accuracy of radiative transfer models, the program decided to deploy multiple instruments sensitive to water vapor at each site. This strategy provided opportunities to compare the different technologies and develop new methods to combine observations to create more accurate water vapor products. This chapter

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

and satellite measurements. Because microwave radiometry is the most accurate way to measure liquid water path, more than 10 different microwave radiometers from European universities and research organizations operated successfully during three enhanced observation phases—all part of BRIDGE, the major field experiment of BALTEX. Most importantly, the BALTEX BRIDGE Campaign (BBC; Crewell et al. 2004 ) included multiple aircraft observations and a microwave intercomparison campaign that served as

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Matthew D. Shupe, Jennifer M. Comstock, David D. Turner, and Gerald G. Mace

case (single-layer, stratiform liquid clouds) also suggested that the measurements themselves require improved sensitivity or additional detection channels [i.e., the 90-GHz channel in the new 3-channel microwave radiometer; Cadeddu et al. (2013) ] to improve the comparison with independent observations. The cirrus community likewise examined a case study from the March 2000 cloud intensive observing period, where 14 different ice cloud retrieval algorithms were compared ( Comstock et al. 2007

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations ( CALIPSO ), have improved our understanding of the role clouds play in modulating radiative exchanges between Earth and space ( King et al. 2003 ; Stephens et al. 2002 ; Winker et al. 2007 , 2010 ). MODIS and microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E; Njoku et al. 2003 ) have furnished a more complete view of surface radiative characteristics (temperature, soil moisture, and ice cover). Temperature and

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E. J. Mlawer and D. D. Turner

measurements in dry environments. After SHEBA, the ARM Program made solid progress improving the accuracy of PWV observations in very dry climates, and by the time of the first RHUBC campaign new operational microwave radiometers at 183 GHz had been developed for deployment to the ARM NSA site ( Turner et al. 2016 , chapter 13). RHUBC-I deployed three of these microwave radiometers and three infrared interferometers to the NSA site in late winter 2007 to evaluate and refine the Tobin et al. modification

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Roger Marchand

Observation Mission–Water ( GCOM-W1 ), form the satellite afternoon constellation or A-Train. 2 In this chapter we summarize results from a variety of satellite cloud validation studies. Observations at the ARM sites have also made important contributions in validating surface and atmospheric properties such as surface radiation (e.g., Charlock and Alberta 1996 ), surface albedo (e.g., Jin et al. 2003 ; Trishchenko et al. 2008 ), microwave emissivity and soil moisture (e.g., Lin and Minnis 2000

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