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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

dominated by the response of the land biosphere sink to climate variations ( Denman et al. 2007 ), and recent analyses from global observations have revealed that these sinks, while remaining stable in their long-term averages, have become increasingly sensitive to subtle changes in climate ( Ballantyne et al. 2012 ). The terrestrial carbon sink is affected by temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, water vapor, CO 2 concentration, and solar visible radiation and hence will be altered by climate

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Charles D. Koven, William J. Riley, and Alex Stern

soil column, the low thermal diffusivity of organic soil horizons and the large amount of latent heat required to freeze and thaw moisture in the active layer leads to rapid attenuation of the annual temperature wave. In addition, the differences between frozen and thawed soil thermal conductivities, particularly for organic soils, which are good insulators in the summer but allow heat to escape during the winter, lead to further change in the mean temperatures with depth, though with a cooling

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Spencer Liddicoat, Chris Jones, and Eddy Robertson

can be found in Jones et al. (2011) . The atmosphere model is composed of 38 levels, with a vertical extent of 39 km, and horizontal resolution of 1.875° (east–west) × 1.25° (north–south). The Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme, version 2 (MOSESII; Essery et al. 2001 ) calculates fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum between the atmosphere and the land surface. The net primary productivity of vegetation covering the land surface is determined by MOSESII as a function of atmospheric CO 2 , light

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

1. Introduction About one-third to one-half of the land surface has been modified by humans ( Ellis 2011 ; Vitousek et al. 1997 ), and the land-use extent is likely to increase in the future to accommodate a growing demand for land ( Carpenter et al. 2006 ). Anthropogenic land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) affects climate through two different pathways. The biogeophysical pathway considers alteration of the physical characteristics of the land surface such as albedo, soil moisture, and

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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

Victoria ESCM 2.9 The University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model (UVic ESCM) version 2.9 ( Eby et al. 2009 ) consists of a primitive equation 3D OGCM coupled to a dynamic–thermodynamic sea ice model and an energy–moisture balance model of the atmosphere with dynamical feedbacks ( Weaver et al. 2001 ). The land surface and terrestrial vegetation components are represented by a simplified version of the Hadley Centre's MOSES land surface scheme coupled to the dynamic vegetation model TRIFFID

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

: A pragmatic method and its validation . J. Geophys. Res. , 107 ( D12 ), doi:10.1029/2001JD000751 . Saleska , S. R. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Carbon in Amazon forests: Unexpected seasonal fluxes and disturbance-induced losses . Science , 302 , 1554 – 1557 . Santer , B. D. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Identification of human-induced changes in atmospheric moisture content . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 104 , 15 248 – 15 253 . Santer , B. D. , and Coauthors , 2009 : Incorporating

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