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F. Joseph Turk, R. Sikhakolli, P. Kirstetter, and S. L. Durden

surface emissivity varies with soil moisture and, to a lesser degree, the soil texture and surface roughness. Soil moisture increases the dielectric constant of the soil and water mixture and thus decreases the surface emissivity; the surface roughness increases scattering and surface area, resulting in an increasing surface emissivity ( Li et al. 2010 ). The combination of the varying land surface emissivity and the surface skin temperature typically produces a radiometric equivalent blackbody

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

hydrologic models can tolerate a relatively small amount of error by the integrated basin processes, but may amplify this error in high precipitation magnitudes ( Guetter et al. 1996 ; Artan et al. 2007 ; Yong et al. 2010 , 2012 ). It has also been shown that the properties of error propagation (magnification/dampening and linear/nonlinear) depend on several factors such as antecedent moisture conditions ( Nikolopoulos et al. 2011 , 2013 ; Bitew et al. 2012 ), basin scale ( Nikolopoulos et al. 2010

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

1. Introduction Streamflow is one of the most important components of the hydrological cycle. Many efforts have been made to develop different models to emulate the hydrological cycle and simulate streamflow. Examples are statistical data-driven (e.g., Kim and Barros 2001 ; Sahoo et al. 2006 ; Piotrowski et al. 2006 ) or physically based ( Estupina-Borrell et al. 2006 ; Sirdas and Sen 2007 ; Beven 2011 ) models in the forms of lumped [e.g., Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

for the shallow warm and shallow cold categories are the weakest. Modal and maximum reflectivities are ~25 and 45 dB Z , respectively. Land–ocean differences in their CFADs show that both of these shallow categories have narrower reflectivity distributions over land than over ocean, probably due to a lack of moisture as well as larger concentrations of aerosols. The midwarm and midcold categories have larger modal and maximum reflectivities than the shallow warm and shallow cold categories, and

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E. Cattani, A. Merino, and V. Levizzani

on a local scale, having an important role in the low-level circulation and moisture transport. It makes the region an exception in terms of precipitation amount, considering that the area receives generally less precipitation with respect to other equatorial–tropical regions worldwide ( Yang et al. 2015 ). In general, more intense precipitation is associated with mountainous regions, as in western Ethiopia and the mountainous regions along the eastern and western branch of the Rift Valley, and

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

. , Ferraro R. R. , Poe G. , Li X. F. , and Grody N. C. , 2003 : Advanced microwave sounding unit cloud and precipitation algorithms . Radio Sci. , 38 , 8068 , doi: 10.1029/2002RS002679 . Zhu, Y. , and Newell R. E. , 1994 : Atmospheric rivers and bombs . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 21 , 1999 – 2002 , doi: 10.1029/94GL01710 . Zhu, Y. , and Newell R. E. , 1998 : A proposed algorithm for moisture fluxes from atmospheric rivers . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 725 – 735 , doi: 10

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

or sounding modes and are consequently referred to as imagers and sounders, respectively. While the radiometric imagers measure and map sea surface, cloud-top, and land surface temperature by scanning across segments of Earth’s surface and atmosphere, the sounders provide vertical atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles and quantitative images of meteorological variables such as total precipitable water by making vertical soundings of the atmosphere ( Weng et al. 2003 ). The precipitation

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