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Yansen Wang, Cheryl L. Klipp, Dennis M. Garvey, David A. Ligon, Chatt C. Williamson, Sam S. Chang, Rob K. Newsom, and Ronald Calhoun

). Because of its low altitude and greater wind speed than the air above and below, the LLJ has a great impact on the development of severe weather ( Frisch et al. 1992 ; Zhong et al. 1996 ). It serves as a major moisture transport mechanism and initiates shear instabilities for storm development. The most frequently occurring LLJs develop during the night and are referred to as the nocturnal LLJ ( Blackadar 1957 ). The nocturnal LLJ is formed when the wind becomes decoupled from the surface due to the

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Julia E. Flaherty, David Stock, and Brian Lamb

1. Introduction Urban air-quality modeling and measurements pose many interesting challenges for atmospheric scientists and environmental engineers. The urban environment is characterized by particularly complex flow patterns that include separation, recirculation, channeling, and chimney effects. As such, pollutant plumes in the urban landscape can often travel nonintuitive paths. Britter and Hanna (2003) summarized the important features in urban areas and highlighted research on moisture

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