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Vahid Naeimi, Zoltan Bartalis, and Wolfgang Wagner

entirely overlapping incidence angle range of the two instruments. In this section a cross comparison between SCAT and ASCAT soil moisture was performed, looking at how the two datasets relate when compared in different circumstances (different land cover, incidence and azimuth angles, and so on). Because of the limited geographical coverage of ERS-2 after 2003 ( Crapolicchio et al. 2007 ), the comparison had to be limited to two selected regions located in North America and West Africa ( Fig. 3

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M. F. P. Bierkens and L. P. H. van Beek

North American climate—The Atlantic influence. J. Climate , 19 , 6005 – 6024 . 10.1175/JCLI3942.1 Vörösmarty, C. J. , Fekete B. M. , and Tucker B. A. , 1998 : Global river discharge, 1807–1991, Version 1.1 (RivDIS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, digital media. [Available online at http://www.daac.ornl.gov ] . Wesseling, C. G. , Karssenberg D. , Van Deursen W. P. A. , and Burrough P. A. , 1996 : Integrating dynamic environmental models in GIS: The development of

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Dingchen Hou, Kenneth Mitchell, Zoltan Toth, Dag Lohmann, and Helin Wei

variable, which can be generated by river routing models from runoff, is not available. River routing experiments are carried out at NCEP within the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project ( Lohmann et al. 2004 ). The NLDAS project ( Mitchell et al. 2004 ) runs four land surface models in analysis mode over the continental United States (CONUS) domain with an 1/8° grid separation, by taking meteorological input from the regional reanalysis, which includes estimated real hourly

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Yongqiang Zhang, Francis H. S. Chiew, Lu Zhang, and Hongxia Li

temporally continuous LAI data sets based on an integrated filtering method: Examples from North America. Remote Sens. Environ. , 112 , 75 – 93 . 10.1016/j.rse.2006.07.026 Franks, S. , Sivapalan M. , Takeuchi K. , and Tachikawa Y. , 2005 : Predictions in Ungauged Basins: International Perspectives on the State of the Art and Pathways Forward . Center for Ecology and Hydrology, 348 pp . Garcia-Quijano, J. F. , and Barros A. P. , 2005 : Incorporating canopy physiology into a

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Dongryeol Ryu, Wade T. Crow, Xiwu Zhan, and Thomas J. Jackson

and 2004. In this section, a summary of the Noah LSM, a description of input data, and specifications for the assimilation experiments are presented. a. The Noah land surface model The Noah LSM is a one-dimensional (1D) soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model that is currently used for the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) and North American mesoscale (NAM) models by the National Centers for Environmental Protection (NCEP). Each 1D column of the Noah domain is composed of four soil

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