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James A. Cummings and Ole Martin Smedstad

conditions and still have a large data impact if the location of the observation is in a dynamically sensitive region. The results illustrate the types of diagnostics that can be routinely obtained with the adjoint-based method in an operational context. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives a brief description of the global HYCOM analysis/forecasting system. Section 3 outlines the data impact procedure, including a description of the limitations of the method as applied in this study

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David Halpern, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Xiaochun Wang

, wind stress and its curl are modified by the data assimilation. Because the OGCM is nonlinear, several such forward-adjoint iterations are needed to reach a solution that is statistically consistent with model and data error estimates. Table 1 lists assimilated datasets and prescribed errors in the cost function, which differ for 2004–05 and 2009–11. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational analysis and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reanalysis of surface

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