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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ). The Kain–Fritsch cumulus scheme ( Kain and Fritsch 1990 , 1993 ; Kain 2004 ) was used for the 12-km domain only, allowing convection to be explicitly resolved in the innermost two domains. For model microphysics, the Predicted Particle Property (P3) microphysics scheme ( Morrison and Milbrandt 2015 ) has been implemented, which is coupled with the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for GCMs (RRTMG) longwave and shortwave radiation schemes ( Iacono et al. 2008 ). Several

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Justin R. Minder, Theodore W. Letcher, Leah S. Campbell, Peter G. Veals, and W. James Steenburgh

Particle Size Velocity (PARSIVEL) optical disdrometer ( Löffler-Mang and Joss 2000 ). Upper-air observations from radiosondes launched as part of OWLeS are used to provide thermodynamic context. We utilize data from GRAW DFM-09 soundings launched from NR, SC, and the north shore of Lake Ontario at Darlington, Ontario (43.873°N, 78.783°W). 3. Case study of an intense lake-effect storm: IOP2b a. Overview Here we focus on an intense lake-effect storm, OWLeS IOP2b, that was oriented along the MRR transect

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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

the aircraft. This technique has been improved using GPS aircraft attitude and velocity measurements ( Haimov and Rodi 2013 ). Other standard meteorological variables (i.e., temperature, air pressure, and humidity) are measured as well. Several optical array probes that measure particle size distributions and concentrations were mounted on board the UWKA, including a cloud imaging probe (CIP; http://www.dropletmeasurement.com/cloud-imaging-probe-cip ) from Droplet Measurement Technologies, Inc

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Dan Welsh, Bart Geerts, Xiaoqin Jing, Philip T. Bergmaier, Justin R. Minder, W. James Steenburgh, and Leah S. Campbell

flight level. This capability is not used here, but we refer to Bergmaier et al. (2015) for dual-Doppler flow analyses for this case. Particle size distributions are measured on board the UWKA by two optical array probes, each sorting particles into 101 bins of equal width: a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP sizing 0.01–2.51 mm, 25- μ m bin width) and a 2D-precipitation probe (2D-P, sizing 0.1–20.1 mm, 200- μ m bin width). CIP’s first two size bins are ignored because they lack reliability, thus the

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Philip T. Bergmaier, Bart Geerts, Leah S. Campbell, and W. James Steenburgh

standard measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, and the 3D wind, as well as measurements of cloud particle size distributions from optical array probes such as a cloud imaging probe (CIP) and a cloud droplet probe (CDP). Welsh et al. (2016) and Bergmaier and Geerts (2016) discuss the in situ instrumentation on board the UWKA during OWLeS in more detail. Additional information regarding the full suite of UWKA instrumentation and measurement capabilities can be found in Rodi (2011) and

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