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Walter N. Meier, James A. Maslanik, Charles W. Fowler, and Jeffrey R. Key

radius, cloud phase, and cloud-top temperature and pressure are retrieved using the Cloud and Surface Parameter Retrieval (CASPR) software toolkit for AVHRR analysis ( Key, 1996b ). CASPR combines a variety of parameterizations, model-derived lookup tables, and radiative transfer code to determine cloud properties and radiative fluxes ( Key, 1996a ). Optical depth for water clouds is estimated based on data from Hu and Stamnes ( Hu and Stamnes, 1993 ). Shortwave ice cloud parameterizations are taken

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Christian Seiler and Arnold F. Moene

the effects of elevation, slope, aspect, and atmospheric properties, varying strongly throughout the study area. The area consists of the upper part of the Mamoré River basin, extending roughly to 160 000 km 2 and covering a very diverse terrain with elevations ranging from 250 to 5000 m above mean sea level, including 12 contrasting ecological regions ( Ibisch and Mérida 2003 ) ( Figure 1 ). Among them are southeastern parts of the Amazon, mountainous humid forests (Yungas), dry forests (Chaco

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Edson E. Sano, Laerte G. Ferreira, and Alfredo R. Huete

soybean and corn). Nowadays, cerrado is the main agricultural province in Brazil and is the country’s most severely threatened biome, requiring a prompt, continuous, and precise mapping and monitoring. To date, the majority of the studies related to the cerrado’s seasonal and land-cover monitoring have been based on optical remote sensing technology. França and Setzer ( França and Setzer 1998 ) as well as Mantovani and Pereira ( Mantovani and Pereira 1998 ) focused on the use of Advanced Very High

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Peiyun Zhu, Susan J. Cheng, Zachary Butterfield, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, and Allison L. Steiner

the times, locations, and land-cover types across the globe that respond most strongly to the diffuse fertilization effect due to clouds and 2) estimating the global impact of diffuse light on Earth’s terrestrial carbon sink. By quantifying the global-scale effect of clouds and their optical properties on land–atmosphere CO 2 fluxes, our results can inform future model development aimed at improving the confidence in model projections of the net effects of clouds on global climate. 2. Data and

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Arindam Samanta, Sangram Ganguly, Eric Vermote, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

aerosol optical thickness (AOT) was obtained from the level 3 daily joint aerosol/water vapor/cloud product (MOD08_D3) at 1° × 1° spatial resolution. These were obtained from the NASA Level 1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS) ( NASA 2011a ) for the months of July–September of the years 2000–06. We used the optical_depth_land_and_ocean_mean_mean data field from this product, which contains AOT at 550 nm. Similarly, monthly AOT was obtained from the level 3 monthly joint aerosol

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R. K. Kaufmann, R. D. D’Arrigo, L. F. Paletta, H. Q. Tian, W. Matt Jolly, and R. B. Myneni

Services (GIMMS) NDVI dataset ( Zhou et al. 2001 ), which has an 8-km resolution (square pixels). Fifteen-day composites of NDVI, solar zenith angle, and aerosol optical depth for this pixel are averaged with those of the eight surrounding pixels to generate monthly values from July 1981 through December 2003. We analyze the average for these nine pixels (as opposed to the center pixel only) because the GIMMS NDVI dataset has an accuracy of plus or minus one pixel ( Tucker et al. 2005 ). Furthermore

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Ashley M. Merritt-Takeuchi and Sen Chiao

-induced phytoplankton bloom in the Gulf of Mexico and pointed out that a notable phytoplankton bloom in the Gulf of Mexico was observed 4 days after the passage of Hurricane Katrina. Acker et al. ( Acker et al. 2009 ) further concluded that, during the life cycle of Katrina, phytoplankton blooms enhanced nutrient supply brought up by wind-driven upwelling and vertical mixing and were identified as the only source of observed changes in ocean optical and bio-optical properties. Nevertheless, phytoplankton blooms in

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Gregory P. Asner, David E. Knapp, Amanda N. Cooper, Mercedes M. C. Bustamante, and Lydia P. Olander

technique requires spectral reflectance bundles [ ρ pv ( λ ), ρ npv ( λ ), ρ bare ( λ )] that encompass the common variation in canopy and soil properties. Asner ( Asner 1998 ) and Asner et al. ( Asner et al. 2003a ; Asner et al. 2004a ) collected these spectral data using full optical range field spectroradiometers (Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, Colorado) during field campaigns conducted from 1996 to 2000 ( Figure 2 ). The spectral end-member database encompasses the common variation in

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Maria de Lourdes Pinheiro Ruivo, José Augusto Pereira Barreiros, Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo, Rosecélia Moreira da Silva, Leonardo Deane Abreu Sá, and Elessandra Laura Nogueira Lopes

, particularly concerning the animals and microbes that depend on the litter and soil properties, it is necessary to choose some specific taxonomic groups that present ecological diversity to perform an investigation about the consequences of the imposed drought upon the fauna ( Di Castri et al. 1992 ). Therefore, our research was directed to the study of the litter spider fauna and aimed to obtain experimental evidence concerning the soil organic matter decomposition change and its relationship with fauna

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Julia Pongratz, Lahouari Bounoua, Ruth S. DeFries, Douglas C. Morton, Liana O. Anderson, Wolfram Mauser, and Carlos A. Klink

structure alters the turbulent transfer of energy through roughness elements. Its optical properties alter the net solar radiation absorbed by the canopy and its physiological activity controls the partitioning of the incoming energy into turbulent fluxes. The impact of land cover change on climate has been explored in previous studies (e.g., Dickinson and Kennedy 1992 ; Zhang et al. 1996 ; Collatz et al. 2000 ; Costa and Foley 2000 ; Bounoua et al. 2002 ; Zhao and Pitman 2002 ; Nobre et al. 2004

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