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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

have the convection base level at the top of the planetary boundary layer. The adjustment time scale of plumes is a function of the vertical depth of the plumes, which varies from 0.5 h for the shallowest plume to 12 h for the deepest. Another major modification to RAS, which affects convective variability of the model substantially and hence the intensity of simulated TCs, is the stochastic determination of the minimum entrainment threshold. This is basically the same as in Tokioka et al. (1988

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

, variability, and change with global warming. The main difference is that HiRAM2.2 incorporates a new land model [GFDL land model version 3 (LM3)]. The atmospheric dynamical core of the model was also updated to improve efficiency and stability. As a result of these changes, there are minor retunings of the atmospheric parameters in the cloud and surface boundary layer parameterizations necessary to achieve the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative balance. This model is also the version of HiRAM used for the

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Michael Wehner, Prabhat, Kevin A. Reed, Dáithí Stone, William D. Collins, and Julio Bacmeister

to depend on the details of the spatial pattern of forcing changes. As the U.S. CLIVAR HWG forcing changes are spatially uniform, detailed basin analyses are deferred until more realistic simulations of a future climate are performed. The motivation for this particular set of simulation experiments is to understand the effects of increased available ocean heat energy on tropical cyclogenesis and development, and the potential competing effect of the vertical stabilization of the atmosphere by

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Christina M. Patricola, R. Saravanan, and Ping Chang

; Servain et al. 1999 ), which characterizes interannual to decadal variations in the cross-equatorial gradient between Northern and Southern Hemisphere tropical Atlantic SST. Both the AMO and AMM encompass the Atlantic main development region; in addition, the AMO includes the remote subtropical and midlatitude North Atlantic, while the AMM includes the remote southern tropical Atlantic. The AMM is a coupled ocean–atmosphere mode that can be generated by external forcings such as ENSO and the North

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