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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

variability driven by large-scale modes of variability ( Risbey et al. 2009 ). Land-use change (LUC) also affects the mean climate ( Pitman et al. 2009 ; Pielke et al. 2011 ; de Noblet-Ducoudré et al. 2012 ) and climate extremes (e.g., Pitman et al. 2012 ), particularly at regional scales ( Deo et al. 2009 ; Kala et al. 2011 ; Nair et al. 2011 ; Avila et al. 2012 ). The persistence of droughts and heat waves has also been linked to land processes, mostly through the soil moisture limitation of

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Pedro Sequera, Jorge E. González, Kyle McDonald, Steve LaDochy, and Daniel Comarazamy

-resolution datasets (e.g., NARR or NAM), since future modeling studies will be performed as far back as the 1950s and NCEP is the only available dataset for that timeframe. Figure 5. Model grids used in the numerical simulations. The Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) level 2.5 ( Nakanishi and Niino 2004 ), a turbulent kinetic energy (TKE)–based local mixing scheme, was used as the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme. The land surface for all domains was characterized by means of the Noah land surface model

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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

data from 2000 to 2014 was used ( n = 690). Different LULCs can affect the albedo and possibly counteract the impact of the change in energy flux. In the current state of affairs, the most common source of albedo data is the MODIS 16-day land surface product (MOD43A3). The MODIS product is a global dataset of spatially complete albedo maps computed for both white sky and black sky at multiple wave lengths. In this case, the full broadband black-sky albedo was used. The black-sky albedo is

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