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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

used, but there is also another option to consider. Yanai et al. (1973) recognized that the column-integrated apparent heating over an area sufficient for a cloud ensemble minus the radiation effects is balanced by the net surface precipitation and the net surface heat fluxes as follows: where Q 1 is the apparent heat source, Q R is the radiative heating rate, P o is the surface precipitation rate, S o is the surface heat flux, g is gravity, and L is the latent heat of condensation

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

into the global GCM with interactive radiative impact of aerosols. The product provides continuous spatial distributions of aerosols consistent with the satellite observations, which allows a more realistic investigation on the African easterly jet (AEJ) ( Reale et al. 2011 , 2014 ). This work advances to assimilate precipitation-sensitive radiances into high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric simulations of the WAM. The goal is to create cloud and precipitation distributions that are consistent

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Jiaying Zhang, Liao-Fan Lin, and Rafael L. Bras

extending from the surface to 50 hPa. The physics option follows the one outlined in Lin et al. (2015) , including the WRF single-moment 3-class microphysics scheme ( Hong et al. 2004 ), the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), the Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989 ), the unified Noah land surface model ( Chen and Dudhia 2001 ), the revised MM5 Monin–Obukhov surface layer scheme, the Yonsei University (YSU) planetary boundary layer ( Hong et al. 2006

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

schemes ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ; Chou et al. 2001 ; Matsui and Jacob 2014 ) to conduct high-resolution (3-km inner nested domains) extratropical simulations. The Goddard broadband two-stream (upward and downward fluxes) approach is used for the short- and longwave radiative flux and atmospheric heating calculations and its explicit interactions with clouds (microphysics). The Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ) level 2 turbulence closure model is used for the planetary boundary layer

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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

1. Introduction Numerical climate and land–atmosphere models are widely used for providing land–atmospheric predictions at different time scales. These models typically capture both atmospheric thermodynamic processes and cloud microphysics to predict the dynamics of land–atmosphere water and energy fluxes. To improve the predictions of land–atmosphere state variables and parameters, a common practice is to assimilate observations from in situ gauges, radiosondes, and satellite measurements

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

The GPM mission collects essential rain and snow data for scientific studies and societal benefit. Water is essential to our planet. It literally moves mountains through erosion, transports heat in Earth’s oceans and atmosphere, keeps our planet from freezing as a result of radiative impacts of atmospheric water vapor, and causes catastrophes through droughts, floods, landslides, blizzards, and severe storms, but most importantly water is vital for nourishing all life on Earth. Precipitation as

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

eliminates the occurrence of snow over the Gulf of Alaska, northern Atlantic south and east of Iceland, and Southern Ocean north of about 50°S. The land–ocean disparities among various classification methods make sense in that cold air outbreaks over ocean produce steeper lapse rates than over land (because of the larger heat capacity of water), which coupled with the surface moisture flux are more likely to produce shallow convection ( Kulie et al. 2016 ; Kulie and Milani 2018 ). Thus, over

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